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3 1822 01080 7964 



WHITE MAN Of WORK 




"3 1822 01080 7964 




UGANDA'S WHITE MAN OF WORK 



UGANDA'S 
WHITE MAN OF WORK 

A Story of Alexander M, Mackay 



SOPHIA LYON FAHS 



NEW YORK 

Missionary Education Movement of the 

United States and Canada 

1913 



FHE UNIVtKSIIY LIBKAKY 

WVERSJTY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGC 

LA JOLLA, CALIFORNIA 



COPYRIGHT, 1907, BY 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S MISSIONARY MOVEMENT 

NEW YOBK 



TO THE BOYS AND GIRLS 

WHO DELIGHT IN TRUE STORIES OF PEOPLE 

AND WHO MAY COME TO REGARD THE WHITE MAN OP 

WORK AS ONE OF THE REAL HEROES OF 

THEIR ACQUAINTANCE 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTEB PAGE 

PRONUNCIATION OF UGANDA WORDS vi 

I A NEWSPAPER MAN'S INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK 

KING 1 

II WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ . . 22 

III JUNGLE ROADS, OX-CARTS, AND FLY BITES ... 49 

IV Two RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE ... 70 
V WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN BECOME ACQUAINTED 89 

VI THE KING AND THE WIZARD ... ^ ... Ill 

VII THE TWO-FACED MUTES A AND THE MOHAMMEDANS 135 

VIII THE NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN . . . .154 

IX MACKAY'S QUEER NEW NAME 170 

X THREE BOY HEROES AND ONE BOY TYRANT . . .195 
XI STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS WITH NERVE . . .219 
XII THE WHITE MAN OF WORK LAYS DOWN His TOOLS 250 

POSTLUDE. DID rr PAY? 271 

INDEX . 281 



ILLTJSTKATIONS 

UGANDA'S WHITE MAN OF WOBK .... Frontispiece 
MAP, MACKAY'S PRINCIPAL JOUBNEYS .... Page viii 
STANLEY TELLS THEM OF THE WHITE MAN'S GOD . ' 14 
THE PROCESSION FILES OUT OF THE VILLAGE . . . ' 36 
PULLING THE CART-BARGE ACROSS THE RIVEE . ' 65 

" OFFICERS OF THE KING CAME TO ESCORT THEM TO 

THE PALACE" ' 74 

" THE MARVELS OF THE MAGIC LANTERN "...." 93 
" THE GREAT WIZARD OF THE LAKE is ABOUT TO VISIT 

THE KING " "112 

"COME TO PRAYERS! COME TO SALVATION!" . . " 138 

" THE CHIEF TEACHING HIS WIVES " "159 

"HE CUTS IRON LIKE THREAD!" " 188 

" PART OF THE CROWD BROUGHT FIRE-WOOD " . . . " 216 
" TELL THE KING THAT I DDE FOB UGANDA " . . . " 226 
" TALKING THUS, W T E ENTERED THE CIRCLE OF TALL 

POLES" " 265 

"LOAD AFTER LOAD OF OFFERINGS CAME THROUGH 

THE DOORS" ....." 278 



PRONUNCIATION OF UGANDA WORDS 



The vowels are sounded as follows: a, as a in father; e, as e in 
they; i, as i in machine; o, as o in note; u, as u in rule. The 
syllables are given in this list, and have no accent. Number, 
following word, gives page where word first occurs. 



a-li-de, 200 

A-po-lo Kag-wa, 237 

ba-gag-wa, 230 
Ba-ga-mo-yo, 36 
Ba-li-ku-denvbe, 233 
ba-ra-za, 80 
Ba-zun-gu, 129 
bwa-na, 40 

Cham-ba-ran-go, 10 

da-la, 94 
Du-mu-li-ra, 156 

Ga-bun-ga, 126 
hon-ga, 44 
I-sa, 16 

Kar-du-ma, 72 
Ka-ge-i, 84 

Ka-ge-ye (same place as Ka- 
ge-i), 72 
Ka-kum-ba, 213 



Ka-le-ma, 256 
ka-ti, 55 
Ka-ti-ki-ro, 17 
Kau-ta, 17 
ka-zi, 171 
Kid-za, 214 
kil-la, 215 
Kim-bug- wa, 187 
Kin-tu, 16 
kub-wa, 57 
Ky-am-ba-lan-go, 182 

lu-ba-re, 94 
Lu-ga-la-ma, 213 
Lu-gan-da, 81 
Lu-kon-ge, 72 

Ma-si-ya, 215 
mba-ya, 55 
Men-go, 207 
mi-la-lu, 141 
Mi-ram-bo, 231 
mi-ti, 55 
Mpwa-pwa, 42 
Msu-la-la, 205 



vi 



UGANDA WORDS 



Muf-ta, 71 
Mu-ja-si, 204 
Mu-ka-sa, 111 
Mu-sa, 16 
Mu-te-sa, 4 
Mu-zun-gu, 55 
Mwan-dang-wa, 72 
Mwan-ga, 200 
Mwi-ra, 167 

Na-lu-ma-si, 228 
Na-ma-so-le, 179 
Na-mi-rem-be, 274 
nji-a, 57 
Nu-a, 232 
ny-an-zig, 79 

pom-be, 12 
pos-ho, 41 

Ru-ba-ga, 73 
Ku-sa-ka, 182 



Sam-we-li, 244 
Seb-wa-to, 213 
Sem-be-ra, 155 
Se-ru-wan-ga, 212 
si-ku, 215 
Son-go-ro, 72 

tu-u-si-fu, 215 

U-gan-da, 4 
U-go-go, 43 
U-ke-re-we, 72 
U-la-ya, 55 
Un-yan-yem-be, 141 
U-sam-bi-ro, 258 
U-so-ga, 202 
U-su-ku-ma, 120 
U-yu-i, 136 

Wa-gan-da, 8 



AFRICA 



c tdrid Nyan za) 
kerew e^IsJa n. d 



6 -- x 

G E R M A N 



EAST 



Mackay's Principal Journeys 




UGANDA'S 
WHITE MAN OF WORK 

CHAPTER I 

A NEWSPAPER MAN'S INTERVIEW WITH A 
BLACK KING 

TT was a November morning in 1875. 
-^- The London newsboys were selling un- 
usually large numbers of the Daily Tele- 
graph. It was enough for the lads to cry, 
''Latest news from Stanley," and every one 
wanted a copy. 

Mr. Stanley had written the story of his 
adventures in Africa, the black man's land. 
Down under the equator, where the weather 
is too hot to be talked about, he was explor- 
ing a lake named for Queen Victoria. 

To reach this place the traveler and his 
men had marched through many regions 
where the native savages had never seen the 
1 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



face of a white man. Within sound of the 
roaring of lions and the cries of leopards 
and hyenas, they had cut their trails 
through thick African jungles. Their 
course had led them to face drenching rains 
and the scorching rays of the tropical sun. 
Again for days they had plodded along over 
parched deserts in search of water. At 
other times they waded more than knee- 
deep through miry swamps steaming with 
heat. More than once Mr. Stanley and 
many of his men had been forced to lie in 
their tents helpless and burning with fever. 
Is it strange that a letter from such a corre- 
spondent was hailed with enthusiasm in 
London ? 

But who had brought the letter all the 
way to London from Stanley in the heart 
of Africa? Not a post-office or mail-car- 
rier was to be found within a thousand 
miles of where Stanley was. The black 
men had no railroads, or mail-coaches or 
even roads over which a coach might be 
pulled. Little wonder then that the letter 
2 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

was seven months old when it appeared in 
the morning newspaper. When one thinks 
of the way it came, the marvel is that it ever 
reached England at all. 

It is the story of a pair of boots. A 
young Frenchman, happening to be with 
Mr. Stanley at the time, wished to return to 
Europe. Gladly taking the letter with him, 
he and his caravan started on their home- 
ward journey. Marching northward along 
the bank of the River Nile, one day they 
were suddenly attacked by a band of savage 
tribesmen. The Frenchman was killed and 
his corpse was heartlessly left lying un- 
buried on the sand. Later some English 
soldiers passing by discovered the dead 
body. Hidden in one of the boots, they 
found Mr. Stanley's letter. They quickly 
forwarded it to the English General in 
Egypt and from there it was sent to the 
newspaper office in London. Was it by 
mere chance that the letter was preserved? 
Some who read the rest of the story may 
think that perhaps the Great Father who 
3 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



loves both black and white people had some- 
thing to do with it. 

But what had Mr. Stanley written in this 
letter which all were so eager to read? A 
message very different from any he had 
ever sent home before yes, very different 
too from that which any one had expected 
from him. Had he been a missionary, his 
letter would not have proved so surprising. 
But Mr. Stanley was an explorer and news- 
paper correspondent. Indeed, many in 
England did not know that he even called 
himself a Christian. Imagine, then, how 
they felt when they found that part of the 
letter read something like this : 

"King Mutesa of Uganda has been ask- 
ing me about the white man's God. Al- 
though I had not expected turning a mis- 
sionary, for days I have been telling this 
black king all the Bible stories I know. So 
enthusiastic has he become that already he 
has determined to observe the Christian 
Sabbath as well as the Mohammedan Sab- 
bath, and all his great captains have con- 
4 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

sented to follow his example. He has fur- 
ther caused the Ten Coimnandnients as well 
as the Lord's Prayer and the golden com- 
mandment of our Saviour, 'Thou shalt love 
thy neighbor as thyself,' to be written on 
boards for his daily reading. 

"Oh, that some pious, practical .mission- 
ary would come here! Mutesa would give 
him anything that he desired houses, 
lands, cattle, ivory, and other things. He 
could call a province his own in one day. 
It is not the mere preacher, however, that 
is wanted here. It is the practical Chris- 
tian, who can teach people how to become 
Christians, cure their diseases, build dwell- 
ings, teach farming, and turn his hand to 
anything, like a sailor this is the man who 
is wanted. Such a one, if he can be found, 
would become the saviour of Africa. 

"Here, gentlemen, is your opportunity 
embrace it! The people on the shores of 
Victoria Lake call upon you. Listen to 
them. You need not fear to spend money 
upon this mission, as Mutesa is sole ruler, 
5 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



and will repay its cost tenfold with ivory, 
coffee, otter skins of a very fine quality, or 
even in cattle, for the wealth of this country 
in these products is immense." 

It was not till some time later that Mr. 
Stanley told all the marvelous tale. No 
one who heard it wondered any more that 
he had asked for missionaries to go to 
Uganda. This is how the story ran: 

With his large company of followers, he 
had begun the voyage northward on Victoria 
Lake toward Uganda. One clear morning 
they spied on the far horizon a fleet of 
canoes coming toward them. As the canoes 
approached, the white men caught sight of 
African oarsmen aboard better dressed than 
any other negroes they had seen in all their 
journey. 

The black sailors hailed the white cap- 
tain, and when they were near enough to 
talk with each other, they told him of a 
strange dream the mother of their king had 
dreamed two nights before. She thought 
she saw on the lake a beautiful vessel hav- 
6 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

ing white wings like a bird. On board was 
a white man with wonderful, large eyes and 
long black hair. The king, on hearing the 
dream, had sent these men to find the white 
man and to invite him to his court. Mr. 
Stanley could not do other than respond 
favorably to this royal invitation, and as 
soon as possible he followed his new guides 
to the northern shore of the lake, where 
lay their home country, the kingdom of 
Uganda. 

A great surprise was in store for him 
when he landed. On the beach stood two 
thousand people marshaled in two long 
parallel lines. Noisy salutes from numer- 
ous guns, the waving of bright-colored flags, 
the beating of tom-toms, and the blaring of 
trumpets, all combined to express their glad 
welcome. So many Africans all neatly 
clad in long white robes, with their chiefs 
arrayed in rich scarlet gowns, made a spec- 
tacle new to Mr. Stanley. On his way to 
Uganda, he had passed through the coun- 
tries of twenty or more African tribes, but 
7 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



the people were all savages, wearing little 
or nothing one could call clothes. These 
Waganda (for that is the name of the peo- 
ple of Uganda), however, seemed to him 
highly civilized. 

The strange white guest was taken to 
the tent which had been made ready for his 
coming. * Soon a herd of oxen was driven 
into the courtyard in front of the tent, and 
then a number of goats and sheep. On the 
ground a hundred bunches of bananas were 
piled. By them was laid a queer heap of 
eatables, including three dozen chickens, 
four wooden dishes of milk, four baskets of 
sweet potatoes, fifty ears of green Indian 
corn, a basket of rice, twenty dozen eggs, 
and ten pots of Uganda wine a most gen- 
erous gift from the king whom the stranger 
had not yet seen. 

When the day came for the white man 
to visit the king's court, Mr. Stanley with 
his large company marched along a broad, 
well-built road leading to the top of a hill, 
where stood a high, dome-shaped hut built 
8 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

of reed grass. In the doorway of this royal 
palace stood the tall, slender figure of King 
Mutesa. His rich, red costume with gold 
embroidery was very becoming to his grace- 
ful, broad-shouldered figure and handsome 
face. In his talk with Mr. Stanley, he 
showed himself bright and eager to learn 
all that he could to increase the greatness of 
his realm, which was already no small king- 
dom. 

Most African nations were small tribes 
of a few hundred or thousand people, and 
most so-called African kings were chiefs 
over a small group of African villages. 
The kingdom of Uganda was a most nota- 
ble exception. Here was a country as large 
as the New England States, with four mil- 
lion people, all ruled by one powerful mon- 
arch. Nor did he rule in the f ashon of most 
xlfrican chiefs. His House of Lords met 
daily in his palace for counsel. These were 
his great chiefs or earls, who ruled his prov- 
inces. He had also his prime minister, his 
chief judge, his commander-in-chief for the 
9 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



large army of black soldiers, and his grand 
admiral for the navy of canoes. To the 
white man, Mutesa seemed like some great 
Osesar of Africa. 

Mr. Stanley, while still a lad, had told 
some of his boy friends that when he be- 
came a man he was going to be a mission- 
ary. This resolve of his boyhood days, 
however, had slipped from his mind as he 
became older. Now in Uganda, where he 
was talking daily with this great African 
king, there came back to him the longing 
he had when a boy, and he wished to know 
how to be a missionary. "If David Living- 
stone were only alive and here in Uganda," 
he thought to himself, "what a wonderful 
work he would do. For should king Mutesa 
and his millions of subjects become Chris- 
tians they in turn would make the best kind 
of missionaries to the savage tribes all about 
them." 

But Mutesa and his people were heathen. 
This does not mean that they worshiped 
idols; for had one searched throughout the 
10 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

whole country of Uganda, he probably 
would not have found a single image. He 
would have seen, however, here and there 
along the roadside, usually under the shade 
of some tree or on the top of a mountain, lit- 
tle huts so small he might have thought they 
were playhouses for the little Uganda chil- 
dren ; but they were used for a very differ- 
ent purpose. To these tiny grass huts the 
Waganda went to sacrifice. 

They believed there was a great god who 
many hundred years ago created the whole 
world;- but, since men had become very 
wicked, this god grew angry and would have 
nothing more to do with the world. It was 
no use therefore to pray to him, for he 
would never listen. Instead, they wor- 
shiped different kinds of evil spirits. These 
spirits lived in trees, or on the mountains, 
or on the lake, or sometimes even in per- 
sons ; and the Waganda thought they would 
do much harm unless presents were given 
to them. Tied to one of the little sacred 
huts or to a tree beside it might be seen 
11 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



some of these gifts walking around several 
sheep or goats or cows. Peeping inside the 
hut, one might discover also a bunch of ba- 
nanas or several skin bottles filled with 
pombe, which is a Uganda wine made from 
bananas. The ugly old man or woman who 
is guardian of the prayer hut keeps these 
gifts until the evil spirit is supposed to have 
taken all he wishes to eat ; then the guardian 
gives himself a treat. So the poor Wa- 
ganda used to pray to these evil spirits by 
giving them presents, not of course because 
they loved the spirits but because they were 
afraid of them. 

There was another religion also, very dif- 
ferent from this heathen spirit worship, 
about which Mutesa had heard a good deal. 
For about fifty years, Arab merchants had 
been coming into Uganda to trade calico, 
wire, beads, and various trinkets for native 
ivory and slaves. 

" There is one true God," these merchants 
said, "and his greatest prophet is Moham- 
med. To him God gave great power to do 
12 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

miracles and to conquer many nations. 
Now, millions upon millions of people wor- 
ship him. In dreams Mohammed was told 
by God many wonderful things about 
heaven and hell, and he has given his fol- 
lowers some good commandments." To 
Mutesa the stories they told of Mohammed 
seemed far more wonderful than the foolish 
tales he had heard of the evil spirits in 
Uganda; and he felt almost like becoming 
a Mohammedan. He began to wear the Mo- 
hammedan dress and turban, he taught his 
chiefs Mohammedan customs, and he kept 
the Mohammedan Sabbath. Thus Mr. 
Stanley found Mutesa half heathen and half 
Mohammedan, never having heard that to 
be a Christian was better than either. 

Day after day passed, and each day King 
Mutesa and Mr. Stanley talked together on 
many subjects. The explorer hesitated to 
speak of the Christian's God, for he knew 
not whether Mutesa would be glad or angry 
to hear of Him. One day at court, when 
the chiefs were all present, some one of 
13 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



his own accord asked Mr. Stanley to tell 
them of the white man's God, As he began 
to tell of God, the loving Father, and of 
Jesus Christ, his Son, Mr. Stanley noticed 
that the king and courtiers were listening 
more intently than he had ever known them 
to listen before. Until that day, it had al- 
ways been thought polite to talk about any 
one subject for a short time only; but now 
these black men seemed to forget to become 
wearied. Each succeeding day, Mr. Stan- 
ley continued to talk on this same subject. 
His hearers appeared far more interested 
in what he said about Jesus than they had 
ever been in any of the wonderful things 
he had told about civilized people. 

Mr. Stanley's visit with Mutesa lasted for 
some months. When it became known that 
he was soon to leave the country, some one 
suggested that at least a few of the things 
the white man had said should be written 
down so that they would not be forgotten. 
By good fortune there were two lads who 
together could do the translating and writ- 
14 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

ing; one was the king's chief drummer, the 
other was one of Mr. Stanley's boat boys. 
So, on thin polished boards of white wood, 
each about a foot square, they wrote the 
Ten Commandments and some of the most 
striking stories of the Old and New Testa- 
ments; until the Waganda had a little li- 
brary of board books. 

One memorable day, King Mutesa called 
to him his chiefs, the officers of his guard, 
and Mr. Stanley. When all were seated be- 
fore him, some on the floor and some on 
stools, in his palace hut, Mutesa began to 
speak. 

"When I became king," he said, in the 
language of his country, '"I delighted in 
shedding blood because I knew no better. 
I was only following the customs of my 
fathers ; but, when an Arab trader came and 
taught me the Mohammedan religion, I gave 
up the example of my fathers, and behead- 
ings became less frequent. No man can 
say that since that day he has seen Mutesa 
drunk with pombe. But there were a great 
15 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



many things I could not understand and 
some things which seemed very unreason- 
able ; but no one in Uganda was able to ex- 
plain them to me. Now, God be thanked, 
a white man, Stamlee, has come to Uganda 
with a book older than the Koran [sacred 
book] of Mohammed. My boys have read 
out of it to me, and I find it is a great deal 
better than the book of Mohammed, besides 
it is the first and oldest book. The prophet 
Musa [Moses] wrote some of it a long, long 
time before Mohammed was born. As Kin- 
tu, our first king, was a long time before 
me, so Musa was before Mohammed. Now 
I want you, my chiefs and soldiers, to tell 
me what we shall do. Shall we believe in 
'Isa [Jesus] and Musa or in Mohammed'?" 

One of the group, Chambarango by name, 
spoke up: "Let us take that which is the 
best. 7 ' 

"But," came a reply from the prime min- 
ister, "we do not know which is the best. 
The Arabs say their book is the best, and 
the white men say their book is the best 
16 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

how then can we know which speaks the 
truth?" 

Then Kauta, the king's steward, said: 
""When Mutesa became a son of Mohammed, 
he taught me, and I became one ; if my mas- 
ter says he taught me wrong, having got 
more knowledge, he can now teach me right. 
I am waiting to hear his words." 

Pleased at this, Mutesa again addressed 
his chiefs : "Kauta speaks well. If I taught 
him how to become a Mohammedan, I did it 
because I believed it to be good. Chambar- 
ango says, 'Let us take that which is best.' 
True, I want that which is the best, and I 
want the true book ; but the katikiro [prime 
minister] asks, * How are we to know which 
is true ? ' And I will answer him. Listen to 
me. The Arabs and the white men behave 
exactly as they are taught in their books, 
do they not? The Arabs come here for 
ivory and slaves, and we have seen that they 
do not always speak the truth, and that they 
buy men of their own color and treat them 
badly, putting them in chains and beating 
17 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



them. The white men, when offered slaves, 
refuse them, saying, ' Shall we make our 
brothers slaves? No; we are all sons of 
God.' I have not heard a white man tell a 
lie yet. Speke came here, behaved well, 
and went his way home with his brother 
Grant. [Speke and Grant were earlier ex- 
plorers in Africa.] They bought no slaves, 
and the time they were in Uganda they were 
very good. Standee came here, and he 
would take no slaves. What Arab would 
have refused slaves like these white men? 
Though we deal in slaves, it is no reason 
why it should not be bad ; and when I think 
that the Arabs and the white men do as they 
are taught, I say that the white men are 
greatly superior to the Arabs, and I think, 
therefore, that their book must be a better 
book than Mohammed's, and of all that 
Stamlee has read from this book I see noth- 
ing too hard for me to believe. I have 
listened to it all well pleased, and now I 
ask you, shall we accept this book or Mo- 
hammed's book as our guide?" 
18 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

Seeing clearly just what the king wanted, 
they all answered, "We will take the white 
men's book." 

Thus it was that Mutesa announced him- 
self a follower of the Christ and the Chris- 
tian's Book. He promised to build a 
church, and begged that other white men 
might come to teach him and his people 
about the good way. 

"Stamlee," he said, "say to the white 
people, when you write to them, that I am 
like a man sitting in darkness, or born blind, 
and that all I ask is that I may be taught 
how to see, and I shall continue a Christian 
while I live." 

Such an appeal Mr. Stanley could not 
let pass unheeded, and the letter was writ- 
ten to the Daily Telegraph. 

But the newspaper correspondent had 
asked a very hard thing. London folk had 
heard before of King Mutesa of Uganda. 
Two earlier travelers had told very differ- 
ent stories of this great heathen monarch. 
L Which was to be believed? They had said 
19 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



that in Mutesa 's court a fair trial was never 
known. If one of the king's chiefs failed 
to salute his majesty properly, his head was 
in danger. If his bark cloth dress was not 
tied over his right shoulder according to the 
proper fashion, Mutesa was likely to order 
the man to be put to death. In an instant 
every one near the offender would rise, 
drums would be beaten, drowning the man's 
cries for mercy, and the unfortunate vic- 
tim would be dragged off to his fate. Even 
the king's three or four hundred wives 
lived in daily fear of death by order of 
their master. Such was the king who 
Stanley was now saying wanted Christian 
teachers. Who knew but that he might not 
soon tire of white men too, and order their 
lives also to be taken? 

Then, too, the young men of England 
thought of the long and dangerous journey 
across a country with no railroads. They 
thought of the wild animals, of the deadly 
hot climate, and of the savage and cannibal 
chiefs through whose countries they would 
20 



INTERVIEW WITH A BLACK KING 

pass. They pictured the loneliness of liv- 
ing so many months away from all their 
white friends and loved ones. What joy 
would there be in living in a small grass hut 
with mud floors and no windows'? Why 
should any man, who might some day be an 
honored clergyman in a peaceful town ir 
England, go to this uncivilized land and be 
his own butcher, baker, and candlestick- 
maker'? 

Was there even one man in England who 
would take Mr. Stanley's letter seriously? 
Would any one be willing to leave home and 
friends and risk his life just because a black 
king in the heart of Africa, plotting per- 
haps for the white man's life, had asked 
for a missionary ? 

Moreover one man could not go alone. A 
number of men \vould have to be found who 
would go in a party. Thousands of dollars 
would be needed for traveling expenses 
alone. Was this undertaking worth all it 
might cost? What would come of Mr. 
Stanley's letter? 

21 



CHAPTER II 

WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

IN an office in Salisbury Square in Lon- 
don a small group of men read Mr. 
Stanley's newspaper letter. They were men 
who had been chosen to gather the money 
given for missions by the churches and to 
send out missionaries. They were called 
secretaries of the Church Missionary So- 
ciety. 

"Is there anything we can do for King 
Mutesa," they said to one another? "If he 
is truly longing to be taught about God, will 
it not be a crime to refuse to send some one 
to tell him ? Even if he is not sincere, ought 
we not to act as if he were ? But who has 
the heart to ask any young man to go? 
And who would be willing to give money for 
the undertaking?" 

22 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

Discouraged by the difficulties they saw, 
yet unwilling to drop the matter carelessly, 
they locked the office doors and knelt to- 
gether to ask the Father to tell them what 
He wanted them to do. Not long did they 
wait for an answer to their prayers. The 
third day after Mr. Stanley's article was 
published, a letter came addressed to Mr. 
Hutchinson, Secretary of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, which showed that some one 
else had the needs of Uganda in mind. 

"Dear Mr. Hutchinson," it read, "Often 
have I thought of the people in the interior 
of Africa in the region of Uganda, and I 
have longed and prayed for the time to come 
when the Lord would open the door so that 
heralds of the gospel might enter the coun- 
try. The appeal of Stanley to the Chris- 
tian Church from Mutesa 's capital, seems to 
show that the time has come for the sol- 
diers of the cross to make an advance into 
that region. If the Committee of the 
Church Missionary Society are prepared at 
once and with energy to start a mission to 
23 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Victoria Lake, I shall gladly give you 5,000 
[about $25,000] with which to begin. 
"I desire to be known in this matter only 

as 'An Unprofitable Servant.' 

(Lukexvii.10)." 

The hearts of the committeemen beat fast 
as they read the letter through. It all 
seemed so wonderful. "God must be in 
this," they said to one another, "God must 
be in this. He must have touched the heart 
of Mutesa and made him want to ask for 
missionaries: he must have told Stanley to 
send the plea on to England: and he must 
have put it in the heart of this Christian 
man of wealth, whose name we do not know, 
to make this generous gift. Who are we 
that we should stand back and say to God, 
1 No, we are afraid to do our part to help.' ' 

They began to study their geographies, 
and to read magazine articles and books of 
travel that told about Uganda and the way 
to go there. By the time a week of such 
thought and prayer had passed, they decided 
24 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

that they would send letters to different 
newspapers asking for men and money. 
Soon another gift of 5,000 [$25,000] was 
made. This encouraged them to work and 
pray for even more. How glad they were, 
not many days later, when they found that 
the sum of 24,000 in all [$120,000] was 
ready to be used! 

These, however, were not the only letters 
which came to make them glad. Some were 
from men who had no money to give, but 
who wanted to give their lives. One was 
from a retired officer of the British navy, 
Lieutenant G. Shergold Smith. One was 
from an Irish architect, Mr. O'Neill; an- 
other, from a minister, the Rev. Mr. Wilson ; 
another from Mr. Clark, an engineer; and 
another from Mr. William Robertson, an 
artisan; and still another from Dr. John 
Smith, a physician of Edinburgh. All 
these men wanted to go, and the secretaries 
at the office said they would be glad to send 
them. Another, however, a carpenter, Mr. 
James Robertson, they refused to send be- 
25 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



cause of his poor health ; but, having alreacty 
sold out his business, he said he would go 
and pay his own expenses. These seven 
men, with one other, made up the party who 
in answer to Stanley's newspaper appeal 
sailed a few months later for Mutesa's land. 

This other was the youngest of them all 
a Scotchman named Alexander Mackay. 
[He pronounced his name, Mack-i.] He 
wrote from Germany where he was gaining 
a reputation for himself as one of the head 
men in an important machine factory. His 
business was to draw plans for large en- 
gines. 

Even when a boy, Alexander had always 
been fond of machinery. Living in a little 
Scottish village, when a lad of about twelve 
years, he used often to walk four miles to 
the nearest railway station and four miles 
back just to see the engine puff into town 
hauling a train of cars, stop a minute or two, 
and then steam off again. His good-nat- 
ured fun made him a great favorite at the 
yillage blacksmith's, at the gas works, the 
26 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

carding-mill, and the carpenters' shops. 
Often he would visit these places, for he 
liked to watch the men and the machinery as 
they did their work. 

While he was at grammar-school in a 
larger town, he could almost never be in- 
duced to go on holiday excursions with the 
other lads. Instead, he would slip away to 
a photographer's where he w r ould learn how 
to use a camera, or he would find his way to 
the shipyards to watch the builders as they 
covered the steel ribs with timbers, placed 
the masts, and sewed the rigging for fishing 
schooners. During his college course, too, 
those studies were most to his liking in 
which he could make something with his 
hands. 

His father wanted him to be a clergyman, 
but the boy did not favor the suggestion. 
He was, however, a true Christian. The 
thought of going as a missionary to some 
heathen land came to him when a child. 
His father used to talk with him about the 
new discoveries in Central Africa, and his 
27 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



mother often told Mm stories about mission- 
aries. 

More than a year before Mr. Stanley's 
plea was published, Mackay had read an ap- 
peal for Christian doctors to go to Madagas- 
car. Although he knew that thousands of 
Christians on that island had suffered death 
as martyrs, he purposed, if it seemed to be 
God's wish for him to do so, to go to Mada- 
gascar as an " engineering missionary." 
By this he meant that he wanted to go to 
that uncivilized island to teach the natives 
to build roads, bridges, railways, to work 
mines, and to learn to use various kinds of 
machinery, and so help them to become 
more useful Christians. A strange sort of 
missionary, you say. This is what many of 
his friends thought, too ; for they had never 
before heard of a mechanic becoming a mis- 
sionary ; but it did not change Mackay 's pur- 
pose. He began at once to prepare for his 
work by studying the language of the peo- 
ple of Madagascar. 

This plan, however, was changed for a bet- 
28 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

ter one. On a bitter cold night, during the 
Christmas holidays of 1875, he finished 
reading Stanley's book, How I Found Liv- 
ingstone. Laying the book on the table, he 
noticed an old copy of the Edinburgh Daily 
Review. His eyes fell on the words ' ' Henry 
Wright, Honorary Secretary, Church Mis- 
sionary Society." His curiosity was at 
once awakened. He had found one of the 
appeals sent out by the secretaries in Lon- 
don asking for men to go out as missionaries 
to Mutesa's kingdom. Mr. Mackay, then 
and there, although it was after midnight, 
wrote to Mr. Wright offering to go to help 
teach Mutesa's people how to be useful 
Christians. 

"My heart burns for the deliverance of 
Africa," he wrote, "and if you can send me 
to any one of these regions which Living- 
stone and Stanley have found to be groan- 
ing under the curse of the slave-hunter I 
shall be very glad ! ' ' 

So it all came about that in the quiet, old 
committee-room of the Church Missionary 
29 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



House one April day the eight young men 
bound for Uganda said good-by to the com- 
mitteemen who stayed at home. One of the 
secretaries, speaking for the rest, gave the 
young men their last instructions. Then 
each of the party replied in his turn. Mr. 
Mackay being the youngest was the last to 
speak. 

" There is one thing," he said, " which my 
brethren have not said, and which I want 
to say. I want to remind the committee 
that within six months they will probably 
hear that one of us is dead." He paused, 
and there was a solemn stillness in the room. 
Then, he went on: "Yes; is it at all likely 
that eight Englishmen should start for Cen- 
tral Africa, and all be alive six months af- 
ter ? One of us, at least it may be I will 
surely fall before that. But," he added, 
"what I want to say is this; when the news 
comes, do not be cast down, but send some 
one else immediately to take the vacant 
place." 

By the end of April all the party had 
30 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

sailed. The good-bys were hard to say. 
Friends, mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, 
and, for some, their wives and children, they 
might never see again. Yet their gladness 
was more than their sorrow as the steam- 
ship put out to sea. They believed that the 
Heavenly Father was their pilot. He had 
raised the money. He had called his work- 
ers, and they were now going with him. 

Five long weeks at sea! Then down by 
the equator a few miles off the east coast of 
Africa, the voyagers at last sighted the 
island of Zanzibar. There in the city of 
Zanzibar, the busiest seaport in East Africa, 
they landed. 

But the kingdom of Mutesa lay about a 
thousand miles beyond. By foot or on don- 
key's back, they must travel through a wild 
tropical country for a distance as far as 
from Washington to Chicago. Even then 
the next to the largest lake in all the world 
and a very stormy and treacherous one it 
is, too, would still separate them from Mu- 
tesa ? s land. 

31 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



In these days of railroads and telegraphs, 
it is difficult to understand how hard it was 
in 1876 to prepare for a journey of one 
thousand miles into the interior of Africa. 
On leaving the coast, the missionaries would 
say good-by to stores of every kind. Noth- 
ing could be purchased at any price in the 
country through which they would march 
except food such as the black men ate, 
elephants' tusks, animal skins, bark cloth, 
and slaves. Even these could not be bought 
with silver and gold or with paper money. 
African chiefs would insist on bead money 
and on such things as red caps, handker- 
chiefs, cloth, wire, guns, and gunpowder for 
pay. 

Before setting sail from Liverpool, the 
missionaries had spent weeks in hurrying 
to and fro from store to store. They had 
ordered books, clothing, medicines, ham- 
mers, nails, spades, saws, hatchets, axes, 
chisels, a forge and bellows, shovels, grind- 
stones, a pump. These do not cover half the 
list. Perhaps the most unique articles in 
32 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

their outfit, were a printing-press, a magic 
lantern, a music-box and a steam launch. 

Much of the bulkiest baggage was left to 
be purchased in Zanzibar. No trudging 
around, however, from store to store this 
time. As soon as the news spread about the 
town that a party of Britishers had arrived 
bound for Victoria Lake, merchants from 
India and Arabs began to call on them. A 
list of the articles needed was carefully 
made out and the goods ordered. 

After several days, there came to the house 
where the missionaries were staying, a num- 
ber of half -naked Indian coolies. In one of 
the houses surrounding the courtyard, they 
stacked scores of bundles of varied shapes 
and sizes. First, came boxes of dried foods, 
pans, kettles, and dishes. Most of the 
camping outfit was purchased in Zanzibar, 
including tents, white umbrellas, waterproof 
sheets, blankets, cots, and stools. 

The largest bundles of all, however, were 
filled with African money. By the door were 
lying piles of small change handkerchiefs 
33 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



and red caps. Over in one corner, the cool- 
ies were rolling $50 bills bales of colored 
and striped cotton cloth. Then came the 
bead money bags of large beads and small 
beads, oval beads and round beads, some 
blue, some red, some green, and some white. 
At last, the coolies, panting with heat, 
lugged in the heaviest bundles of all 
huge coils of brass wire thousands and 
thousands of yards. Handkerchiefs, red 
caps, cloth, beads, and brass wire, together 
weighing hundreds of pounds, were all to be 
used as money. 

The baggage being collected, the next 
problem was how to get it carried across the 
country to Mutesa's kingdom. Having 
nothing but crooked narrow trails for road- 
ways, the missionaries were obliged to travel 
as the Arabs had always done before them. 
This meant picking their w r ay on foot sin- 
gle file, mile after mile, and using black men 
as beasts of burden. 

Now, even sturdy black baggage-carriers 
will not march with a burden on their heads 
34 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

weighing more than about sixty pounds. So 
all the white men's freight had to be taken 
from trunks and boxes and repacked. The 
boxes were opened, their contents spread out 
on the ground in piles of the size and weight 
of one man's load. Then shaping each pile, 
if possible, into the form of a large pillow- 
bolster, they wrapped it in several thick- 
nesses of cloth and tied it tightly with strong 
rope. "When neither rain nor rough hand- 
ling could harm what was within the wrap- 
pings, the bundles were ready for the heads 
of the African porters. 

While some of the missionary band were 
busy packing supplies, others were toiling 
at perhaps the hardest work of all. Trudg- 
ing from hut to hut in the negro quarter of 
Zanzibar, they were hiring baggage-carriers. 
Others having crossed the channel to the 
mainland were plodding about from village 
to village working at the same trying task; 
for as many as five hundred porters were 
needed. For many w r eeks this search 
dragged along. Finally, it was decided to 
35 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



divide the missionary party into four cara- 
vans, so that some could begin the march be- 
fore all of the five hundred baggage-carriers 
were found. 

Two of the caravans had not yet started 
when the " angel of death" visited the camp. 
" Within six months you will probably hear 
that one of us is dead," Mr. Mackay had 
said to the committee before leaving Eng- 
land. "Within four months the prophecy 
was fulfilled. On a little island off the 
coast, a grave was dug for the body of James 
Robertson, the carpenter, who had gone with 
the party at his own expense. He had 
given his life for a king and a people he had 
never seen. 

The next to the last caravan to leave the 
coast was Mr. Mackay 's. Crowds of peo- 
ple from the town of Bagamoyo flocked to 
see the white man and his procession file 
out of the village. A bugle call had sum- 
moned those hired for the journey to gather 
before the white man's quarters. A man's 
load was given to each carrier and his place 
36 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

in the procession assigned. First marched 
a half-dozen soldiers, who never had even 
carried guns until Mr. Mackay began to 
train them. Then came the leader of the 
porters with a load on his shoulders twice as 
heavy as any one else carried. He was fol- 
lowed by about two hundred men loaded 
with their sixty pound pillow-bolsters. Be- 
hind them, straggled the wives of a few por- 
ters, an aged father, and a handful of small 
boys. Next walked a line of four donkeys 
laden with parts of a steam launch, other 
machinery and tools, and much of the cloth. 
After them, marched Mr. Hartwell, a 
sailor, who was now Mr. Mackay 's only 
white companion. He was followed by a 
cook, Mr. Mackay 's personal servant, three 
stoker boys, an interpreter, an African ma- 
son, and a carpenter. Last of all came a 
group of soldiers, Mr. Mackay, and a dog. 
It was an interesting procession for the 
townspeople to watch, for marching single 
file, they stretched along the path for about 
a quarter of a mile. 

37 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Talking, laughing, and singing, the long 
line wound here and there through the tall 
jungle grass, down some little valley or up 
a tiny hill. But the sun shone hot above 
them, and the path was hard and dry. In 
an hour or so, the heat became oppressive. 
The orderly line grow irregular. Some 
straggled behind, blaming Mr. Mackay for 
their discomfort. Those accustomed to 
march walked steadily on toward a river 
about three miles distant where they knew 
they could rest, but some of the inexperi- 
enced ones were already lying flat on the 
ground crying for water and bewailing that 
they had ever been such fools as to leave 
their homes. 

During the first few days, the caravan 
proceeded very slowly. The men insisted 
on marching only an hour or two in the 
morning and on resting all the next day. 
By promising higher wages if they would 
march longer each day, Mr. Mackay suc- 
ceeded in getting them to march from sun- 
rise or soon after until about noon. 
38 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

The country through which they passed 
varied greatly from day to day. Some- 
times they pushed their way through fields 
of grass as tall as themselves or even higher 
and having stalks almost as thick as sugar- 
cane. Every now and then they were 
startled by a hippopotamus or an antelope 
scared from its hiding-place in the heavy 
grass. 

Starting off again, they came to a swamp 
more beautiful to look at than to wade 
through. It was filled with large graceful 
ferns and beautiful pink flowers. At night 
it was alive with fireflies. The missionaries 
thought this sight worth going hundreds of 
miles to see. They also passed through 
fields of millet growing to a height of six- 
teen or eighteen feet. At another place, 
they were refreshed by the cool shade of a 
park-like forest. The giant cacti and eu- 
phorbia trees made it seem very different 
from the woodlands at home. They discov- 
ered gorgeous butterflies and many birds of 
brilliant plumage that their friends in Eng- 
39 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



land had never seen. Sometimes the for- 
est changed to jungle. Then with an ax 
and hatchet foot by foot they had to slash 
a wider path in front of them, before the 
donkeys could wedge their way between the 
two walls of underbrush on either side. 

You would have enjoyed seeing how Mr. 
Mackay fed his large family of two hundred 
blacks. Reaching a place near a water sup- 
ply where it was planned that the caravan 
would spend the night, tents were pitched 
and the goods piled under a tree or in a 
tent. When in a district where wild beasts 
were common, a fence of thorns was built 
round the camp. As soon as this work was 
completed, the head men of the caravan col- 
lected before Mr. Mackay 's tent and cried 
"Posko, Bwana" ["Rations, Master."] 
Instead of handing out food to them, he had 
a bale of calico brought to him and, meas- 
uring it by the length of the forearm from 
the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, he 
gave each one eight of these lengths for 
every sixteen men of whom he had charge. 
40 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

"With these pieces of calico for money these 
men went to the natives of the place and 
bought their own food. 

" To be a father to such a large family of 
children," wrote Mr. Mackay, "every day 
crying out 'Posho!' which means, 'Give us 
our daily bread, 7 is by no means a joke. 
Their little disputes and complaints I have 
to settle. My interpreter is poor in English 
and sometimes says just the opposite of 
what I mean. Still we get on wonderfully 
well." 

Water at times was harder to find than 
food. More than once the caravan was 
obliged to set up camp and with empty 
water-bottles to walk forth in seach of some- 
thing with which to quench their thirst. 
When no spring could be found, the natives 
w r ould dig holes in the ground which would 
usually fill with a muddy looking liquid re- 
sembling soap-suds. With such as this 
blacks and whites alike had to be content. 

Fortunately, Mr. Mackay had very few 
sick men to take care of. In a caravan a 
41 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



little in front of his, smallpox was raging 
severely, and here and there along the road 
lay the bodies of men who had died on the 
march. In order to escape the tracks of 
this caravan, Mr. Mackay left the regular 
road and for two days he and his men waded 
knee-deep through a mixture of black mud 
and water. 

Through his attempt to hustle the slow- 
going African, Mr. Mackay overtaxed him- 
self and was taken sick with the African 
fever. For a few days he was too weak to 
walk and was obliged to ride one of the don- 
keys that had been carrying baggage. At 
last, however, the feverish coast-plains were 
left behind. Gladly they climbed the moun- 
tains to the little town of Mpwapwa. They 
had traveled only a little farther than from 
New York to Boston; yet the march had 
dragged along for six weeks. 

At Mpwapwa three of the missionary car- 
avans met. For a few days the white men 
rested and prepared for the journey ahead. 
How they enjoyed their after-dinner chats 
42 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

as they sat together in one of the tents tell- 
ing the experiences of the march ! 

Only a few days at Mpwapwa and then 
two of the caravans are off again made up 
of Dr. Smith, Mr. Mackay, and over three 
hundred baggage-carriers. By their first 
Sunday, they overtook another of the car- 
avans ahead, led by Lieutenant Smith, the 
old naval officer. 

For thirty or forty miles beyond them 
stretched a dreary plateau covered with a 
thick, low jungle. Not a human being lived 
in all this lonely forest and the caravan 
could find neither food nor water except 
what they carried with them in knapsacks 
and water-bottles. After days of this tire- 
some march, they entered the wide, open 
land of Ugogo. Here every few miles was 
a new village ; and with every group of vil- 
lages they found a new chiefc Each chief 
insisted that to travel through his country 
was a privilege, and the white man would 
have to pay for it. The paying of this toll, 
or Jwnga as they call it, added not only a 
43 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



great deal of expense to caravan-travel, but 
also caused many annoying delays. 

Their experience with one of the chiefs 
of Ugogo will show something of the man- 
ner in which they were treated in many vil- 
lages. A short distance from the chief's 
village, the caravan encamped. The follow- 
ing morning two of the more intelligent Af- 
ricans were sent to call on the chief, and to 
take him a gift of some cloth. They found 
a monarch much soiled with dirt and grease 
sitting on a stool in his wattled hut drinking 
potribe. He received the cloth, but de- 
manded a great deal more. Fifty cloths, 
he insisted was none too much. The mes- 
sengers claimed that such a demand was rob- 
bery and hour after hour they quarreled 
with him. At nightfall the messengers re- 
turned to camp and reported, "The chief 
is sitting at ponibe, and won't hear reason. 
He says, 'The white man is a great sultan 
in his own country, and he must pay a big 
honga.' " 

The next morning, they returned to the 
44 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

mud palace and again tried to reason with 
the stubborn chief. Later in the day, Lieu- 
tenant Smith himself entered his majesty's 
presence and added his word of protest 
Finally the chief agreed to receive forty- 
five bales of cloth. 

The troublesome matter being settled y 
Lieutenant Smith thought he would enter- 
tain the chief with some of the white man's 
wonders. Taking a match box from his 
pocket, he struck a light. The chief was 
frightened, or pretended to be, and cried, 
"The white man is trying to kill me!" 
Rushing from his hut, he disappeared. 
Later he sent to the missionaries' camp to 
say that for such a serious offense they 
would have to pay as a forfeit twenty-five 
bales of cloth more than had already been 
given. 

So the privilege of camping for three days 
in this chief's realm, cost the missionaries 
seventy bales of cloth or about $100. 
When the cloth was paid the big drum of the 
village was beaten and the caravan knew 
45 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



that they were at liberty to proceed on their 
way. 

On entering Ugogo, Mr. Mackay's fever 
had returned and for miles he had to be 
carried in a hammock. There being good 
water in the land of this ruler he would like 
to have stayed longer in his domain. He 
feared however, that more honga would be 
charged him if he remained. 

What should he do ? Just beyond, lay a 
nine days' wilderness and immediately after 
that was another that would take three days 
to cross. No water and no food were to be 
found in these jungles, and the caravan's 
supply of provisions was very low. Lieu- 
tenant Smith and Dr. Smith urged him to 
return to the coast. Hard as it was to turn 
back, Mr. Mackay finally yielded to the coun- 
sel of his friends. 

Lying in a hammock swung from the 
shoulders of two strong men Mr. Mackay 
was carried back to the town of Mpwapwa 
over the path by which he had just come. 
Eight others carried his tent, instruments, 
46 



AFTER THE NEWS WAS READ 

clothes, cooking utensils, and some cloth with 
which to buy food. 

At one time, he became so weak that he 
expected to die. Calling for a writing desk, 
he mixed an ink powder and commenced 
what he thought would be his last letter on 
earth. But during the night, a change for 
the better came. Mr. Mackay said a bunch 
of home letters had been his best medicine. 
In eleven days he walked the entire distance 
from Mpwapwa to the coast, and on reaching 
Zanzibar he was almost a well man. 

It was now the last of November, 1876. 
One year had passed since Mr. Stanley's let- 
ter had appeared in the Daily Telegraph. 
A band of eight young men from Great 
Britain had started for Mutesa's land. One 
had laid down his life at the very gateway 
of the continent. One having started inland 
had been stricken with fever and was obliged 
to begin the march anew. One had settled 
at Mpwapwa to start a mission there. The 
other five with their hundreds of black car- 
riers were plodding along through jungle 
47 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



and swamp and over mountain and plain 
toward Victoria Lake. 

But what of King Mutesa $ Since ' ' Stam- 
lee" left, no word had come from the white 
men. Were they going to leave him "sit- 
ting in darkness"? When would they ever 
come to teach him " how to see"? 



48 



CHAPTER III 

JUNGLE ROADS, OX-CARTS, AND FLY BITES 

SINCE Mr. Mackay landed in Zanzibar 
six months had come and gone. And 
what had he accomplished? A three hun- 
dred mile march inland only to be made all 
over again ! A new outfit must now be pur- 
chased; a new caravan of porters must be 
hired; and again they must pick their way 
over the same rough, narrow trail. Weary 
as Mr. Mackay was of this snail-like way of 
traveling, he set to work immediately to pre- 
pare for a second caravan journey. 

But a letter from England changed his 
plans. The secretaries there, having heard 
of Mackay 's sickness, wrote that he must not 
begin the march into the interior until June, 
when the rainy season would be over. In 
the meantime, they said he might see what 
49 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



could be done about building a road to 
Mpwapwa. At first this man of energy was 
disappointed. When again would he see his 
friends, he thought, and how much longer 
must he wait before telling King Mutesa of 
the white man 's God ? Yet, without a com- 
plaint, he was ready to turn road-builder. 

But his friends up-country sorely needed 
fresh supplies. At the earliest possible mo- 
ment, he must gather a caravan and, with 
some one else at its head, he must send it off 
toward Victoria Lake. The story is again 
one of delays and hardships. Compelled to 
sail three hundred miles north from Zanzi- 
bar to find porters, he tramped back on foot 
from village to village along the coast. 
What discomforts were crowded into the 
three months he spent hiring baggage-car- 
riers, no one but Mr. Mackay himself knew ! 

Writing of one of his long journeys, he 
said: "This walk was much harder than 
any I have made before. Days of man- 
grove swamp, hours of wading nearly to the 
waist, and occasional swimming across rapid 
50 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

rivers usually gave me an appetite for food 
and rest. I had only a man (my cook) and 
a boy with me, so that I had to dispense with 
the luxuries of a tent, bed, change of cloth- 
ing, and such things. I often got a hut to 
sleep in, but when not, I enjoyed sleeping in 
the open air, preferring it often to a cow- 
stable swarming with ants and similar un- 
pleasant friends. " 

Later he wrote again : "I have slept in all 
sorts of places a cow-stable, a sheep-cote, a 
straw hut not much larger than a dog-kennel, 
a hen-house, and often in no house at all. So 
anything suits me, provided I get a spot 
tolerably clear of ants and mosquitoes. Of 
all the plagues of Egypt, none could have 
been worse than that of the black ants I" 

Finally, the carriers were hired and the 
caravan was started on its way toward Vic- 
toria Lake. The young missionary, how- 
ever, w y ho had gathered it was again help- 
lessly ill with fever. The strain of the three 
months of labor had proved too much for 
him. Had it not been for the kind nursing 
51 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



of white friends in Zanzibar his life story 
would perhaps have ended here. 

Six weeks later, however, he was out of 
bed and enthusiastic over the commonplace 
labor of building a road. Having hired 
forty black carriers, besides women to carry 
loads and men to drive donkeys, he set up a 
camp about five miles from the coast on the 
top of a hill overlooking a small town. This 
seemed a most desirable spot for camping 
because it was high and exposed to fresh 
breezes from both the sea and the land. 
Here Mr. Mackay planned to live several 
weeks, while working on the road in the 
neighborhood. 

Writing from this camp, he said: "I sit 
at present like Abraham in his tent door. 
My servants, my flocks, and my herds are 
about me. I am well again, thank God, and 
camp life has set my spirits up. My horse, 
my dog, my goat, my oxen, and donkeys, 
with all my household of nearly seventy men 
and women, are enough to feed, and quite 
enough to look after at one time. 
52 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

"My working gang consists of only about 
forty men, and these I have armed with the 
best American axes, English hatchets, picks 
and spades and saws. All these tools are as 
new to them as they are to the natives of the 
villages we pass through. A donkey's load 
of large iron nails I have taken with me, and 
plenty of hammers, but the wood is as a rule 
too hard for the iron to enter. For such 
cases, I have supplied myself with a large 
stock of strong rope of cocoanut fiber. 

' ' One of the tools I brought with me from 
England proves" more serviceable than all 
the rest together. It is merely a two-foot 
grindstone which I have mounted on a 
wooden frame. Every evening when we re- 
turn from work in time, the edges of the 
tools are applied to the face of this wonder- 
ful machine, while the villagers crowd 
around as anxiously gazing on as little 
Toddy ever did when he wanted 'to see the 
w'eels go wound.' ' 

During the morning hours the gang would 
be busy with axes, saws, and shovels. In the 
53 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



open and level country, men would be scat- 
tered here and there over the trails, each 
clearing and leveling his own particular 
stretch of the road. Perhaps far behind the 
rest, would be five or six workmen toiling 
steadily at some unusually sturdy tree, 
whose hard, wood was too much for the saws 
and axes. 

In the dense jungles, on the other hand, 
the men would be huddled together like colo- 
nies of ants, doing their hardest work. So 
thick \vere some of these woodlands that the 
black toilers were often hidden from sight. 
According to Mr. Mackay even a cat could 
scarcely find room to wedge its way through 
the matted underbrush, creepers, and trop- 
ical ferns. Where a narrow trail had before 
been cut through these miles of jungle, the 
branches and hanging vines were so closely 
interlaced overhead that the traveler could 
scarcely get a glimpse of the blue sky, and 
would be walking, as it were, through a 
damp, leafy tunnel. To saw through a tree- 
trunk in such a tangled mass, seldom meant 
54 



'JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

that the tree would fall, unless the matted 
undergrowth were first slashed away. 

Sometimes they shelved out a footing 
around the brow of a mountain ; sometimes 
they had to cover swampy stretches with 
layers of logs, thus making a corduroy road. 
At other times they prepared to ford streams 
by grading the banks on either side. 

Their greatest achievement was the build- 
ing of a bridge in seven days. The ignorant 
black men had never before seen any kind 
of a bridge for wagon traffic. The entire 
structure was built of wood almost as hard 
as iron so that Mr. Mackay thought that it 
would long stand against the attacks of white 
ants. 

These negro laborers, like most of their 
race, worked best when singing. As they 
chopped and shoveled and dug, one might 
have heard them chant this song made up for 
Mr. Mackay 's special benefit : 

'Eli, eh, muzungu mbaya, 
Tu kati miti, 
Twende Ulaya." 
55 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Put into English it means : 
Is not the white man very bad, 
He fells to the ground the tall trees, 
To make a way for the Englishman. 
Days, weeks, and even months came and 
went. All the way black men slashed and 
sawed, and dug and leveled, while Mr. 
Mackay rode or walked back and forth 
among them, encouraging them to their 
best work. Ofttimes he showed them what 
to do and how to do it by taking shovel or 
pick in hand and leveling banks, or filling 
mud-holes. He provided their food, plan- 
ned for their shelter and cared for their 
sick. He longed to be able to talk their 
language that he might tell them of the 
God who cared for them and wanted them 
to live useful lives. Finally, after one hun- 
dred days of vigorous toil, the road was 
completed. 

Before it was begun there was only a 

crooked, narrow trail stretching for the two 

hundred and thirty miles to Mpwapwa. At 

some places, donkeys could scarcely be 

56 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

pulled through the thick jungle ; porters tore 
their scanty clothes or cut their skins on the 
thorny bushes; and for lack of room over-- 
head, bales of cotton had to be dragged along 
the ground. When they finished the work, 
there was a clear road all the way from the 
coast to the mountains and it was broad 
enough to allow the largest ox-carts to pass 
each other at any point. 

The natives of the country were half 
pleased and half alarmed because of this 
wondrous achievement. Mr. Mackay wrote : 
''Passers-by open their mouths as well as 
their eyes at the njia kubwa [big road] of 
the white man ; and when they return to talk 
together at evening in their villages, the 
story of the 'big road' is told, and, as is al- 
ways the case in Africa, with enormous ex- 
aggerations. To the chief men, however, 
the story is not always pleasing ; and the re- 
port is being widely spread that the English 
are coming to take possession of the coun- 
try. The chief of the village near which I 
made the bridge, took a more practical view 
57 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



of the matter, and told me one day, with all 
the command his dirty visage could assume, 
that I must pay a hundred dollars for cut- 
ting down the trees in his territory. I told 
him that it was he who should give me the 
hundred dollars, to pay my men for making 
a bridge which he and his people could not 
make. For as soon as I was gone, he would 
call it his own, and probably levy lionga 
from those caravans which cared to pay 
him." 

"When the road was completed, Mr. 
Mackay and his men returned to the coast. 
"Now," he thought, "we are ready to travel 
in a civilized way. We will buy oxen and 
carts for carrying our baggage and we will 
reach Mpwapwa in half the time it took us 
before. The experiment has been tried most 
successfully in South Africa by other men ; 
w 7 hy cannot we succeed in Central Africa?" 

Most enthusiastically he began prepara- 
tions for the journey, but again he found 
that he had a difficult task before him. In 
the first place, oxen, which never before had 
58 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

been hitched to carts, had to be broken in. 
Neither could men be found who had ever 
before driven oxen, so that new hands had to 
be taught. This was harder, Mr. Mackay; 
said, than to teach the oxen to pull. 

Then, too, they were obliged to canip in a 
very unhealthful place. Up in his old camp 
on the hill, many of the oxen died from the 
poisonous sting of the tsetse fly, and Mr. 
Mackay with his men and flocks and herds 
was obliged to move to the plain. For at 
least two months before they started on their 
journey, it rained nearly every day. The 
plain became a quagmire and the training of 
oxen and men had to stop. 

Waiting so long at the coast for the rainy 
season to pass, Mr. Mackay 's men grew dis- 
contented and unruly and some of them de- 
serted him. Also, Mr. Tytherleigh, his as- 
sistant who had lately arrived from Eng- 
land, was laid low with a severe attack of 
fever. They must soon travel along or 
many others also would be sick. 

In spite of the rain and mud, therefore, 
59 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



the long lumbering caravan moved out of 
the town. There were six large awkward 
carts loaded to the full with baggage. 
Teams of from eight to twenty oxen were 
pulling each cart. Many more oxen were 
taken as reserves to fill the places of those 
which might be injured or become sick on 
the road. In all there were as many as 
eighty oxen. To drive and to lead these ani- 
mals and to manage the brakes on the carts 
required thirty men, and thirty more might 
have been seen carrying on their heads bun- 
dles of baggage. Behind the carts came a 
flock of sheep and goats, to be used as food 
for the party, and also five donkeys and six 
dogs. 

Over each cart waved a flag. When they 
camped by the road for the night, a flag 
waved also above each tent door, the largest 
of all flying over Mr. Mackay 's tent. These 
were not the national flags of Great Britain 
or of the United States ; they were blue, each 
with a large red cross painted on its center. 
The African heathen could not understand 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

what they meant, but any Christian will 
readily guess the meaning of the flags. 

After ten days of travel, Mr. Mackay tells 
this story of their adventures: "A long 
time without practise, on account of the rain 
and mud, had put the oxen out of trim, so 
that when we set off we were able to make 
only a few hundred yards ' progress the first 
day. Next day more rain made matters 
worse, and we made not half a mile. . I then 
resolved to remove four hundred pounds of 
baggage from each cart. After a couple of 
days ' rearranging loads, we got a fair start, 
but another deluge of rain caused us to stop 
short at the foot of the hill where our old 
camp had been. Next day we got to the top 
of the hill, and have since then made a little 
progress when it was fair. 

" After ten marching days, usually with 
double teams in each cart, and wheels down 
to the axle in mud, we are camped to-day 
only ten miles from the coast. I have re- 
solved, therefore, to send back two of the 
larger carts with their loads. " 
61 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



About two weeks later [Christmas Day, 
1877] he wrote again: "You should see me 
every day with clothes bespattered with mud 
and hands black like a chimney-sweep's 
catching the spokes of the wheels every now 
and then as they get into holes, and yelling 
at the top of my voice to the oxen, till the 
forest resounds. So much yelling have I 
to do in the six hours we march a day, that 
when I get into camp I am always quite 
hoarse. A team of twenty-six oxen, fre- 
quently spanned on in front of one cart, does 
need good shouting and lashing to get them 
to pull together. It is not walking with my 
umbrella or riding on a donkey behind a 
cart, but ever getting some one or other or 
all the carts out of this difficulty and the 
next. My men are far from skilful in the 
art of driving long teams through the for- 
est, and are constantly bringing the carts 
against trees or stones or into holes, not in- 
frequently upsetting them altogether. It 
is hopeless, for instance, in trying to cross a 
river, to find one ox lie down, another break 
62 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

loose and run away, several more with their 
faces to the cart, where their tails should be, 
and so on. One 's patience gets sorely tried 
by such occurrences, but the only way is pa- 
tiently to arrange all and try again." 

Here are some lines from another letter: 
"A terrible scorpion crawled over me just 
now. I should like you to see half the hor- 
rors of the kind I see in a day snakes and 
ants on the ground below till one shudders 
from top to toe, and terrible biting, sting- 
ing, huge flies all above and about, drawing 
blood at every bite. Last night I was busy 
sleeping, when just at my ear a terrible 
growl of a hyena made me spring to my feet, 
seize my rifle and fire; but 'Bobby,' my dog, 
was before me, and set up such a furious 
bark that the beast skulked off before I had 
time to present it with a bullet. I dare say 
you think it a dastardly kind of life, to lie 
with a revolver under one's pillow and a 
rifle at one's side, but it is necessary here, 
for anything may happen at any moment, 
and it is best to be ready." 
63 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Sometimes Mr. Mackay 's experiences 
were more amusing than dangerous. One 
night he was sleeping soundly on a mattress 
on the floor of his tent, when he was awak- 
ened by a very uncomfortable feeling of 
numerous things crawling over him. To 
his surprise he found a colony of brown 
ants in his tent. Unwittingly he had 
camped across their line of march. By 
thousands they were crawling over him and 
his mattress. He climbed on top of a box, 
while some of his men set fire to the whole 
ground inside and around his tent. After 
an hour's struggle, the ants disappeared, but 
Mr. Mackay slept on the top of the box till 
daybreak. 

At one place, the party were obliged to 
cross a river very much flooded by the re- 
cent rains. They could not wait for the 
water to fall, for thunder-storms were com- 
ing as frequently as ever. Cross it they 
must; but how to do it was a most difficult 
puzzle. This is the way Mackay solved it. 
One of the carts was stripped of its wheels 
64 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

and all other fittings so that when all the 
cracks were filled with tar, it made a sort 
of small barge. A few excellent swimmers 
of the caravan carried a cord across the 
river. By means of this cord a rope was 
hauled across and passed around a strong 
post on the opposite side, and then brought 
back to the side on which the caravan was 
stationed. To this pulley the cart-barge 
was attached. By pulling the rope from 
one or the other bank, the men carried the 
barge with its cargo of freight across the 
river, or brought it back empty to be re- 
loaded. Other swollen rivers and smaller 
streams had to be crossed from time to time. 
It was no mere play to cross any one of them 
with oxen and carts and baggage which 
needed to be kept dry. 

One day, the accidents were not confined 
to the carts or baggage, but Mi*. Mackay 
himself was temporarily crippled. He had 
just succeeded in getting one of the carts 
over a stream, when he became entangled in 
a bush and one of the wheels caught his right 
65 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



foot. He fell, and the wheel ran over both 
his legs. He nearly fainted from the shock ; 
yet a little crude doctoring revived him con- 
siderably. Two of his men, putting their 
loads into the carts, carried him along in a 
hammock. However, it continued to be a 
day of troubles; for cart after cart upset. 
Then too, sick as he was, Mr. Mackay was 
obliged to turn from patient to doctor; for 
the chief of a village near by, hearing of his 
arrival, sent to him seven of his subjects 
to be vaccinated and one little boy to be 
cured of spinal disease! 

One morning the natives gave Mr. Mack- 
ay a unique surprise. Lo, his road had 
been changed into a field of growing corn. 
"We thought you white men had cleared 
this space for us that we might plant gar- 
dens," the natives explained. 

In reality, they were afraid that the great 
teams of oxen coming along the white 
man's road would soon be followed by vast 
European armies. The farther inland the 
caravan traveled, the more the natives tried 
66 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

to harass them. In many places, they 
blocked the road with bushes and trunks of 
trees; as soon as the cattle were safely 
across a river, they drove them back to the 
other side; and became very angry when 
they saw the oxen tread down the corn 
planted on the track. Indeed, one chief 
sent word to Mr. Mackay that if he took his 
teams past the chief's village he would be 
shot. Only by patience and skill could head- 
way be made. 

Still one more misfortune came upon 
them, greater than all that have been men- 
tioned. In many parts of the road, the 
caravan was pestered by the tsetse flies. 
These were large brownish-yellow insects 
which, by thousands, stung both the men 
and the oxen. Although they seemed to 
bring little more than discomfort to the men, 
their sting was almost invariably fatal to 
the animals. When still some distance 
from Mpwapwa, half of the eighty oxen with 
which they started were dead, and many 
more were sick, and it was not many weeks 
67 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



before the surviving oxen became so few 
that the carts were abandoned entirely. 

Thus the road had been built at the cost 
of nearly one-third of a year's time. With 
much difficulty oxen had been trained and 
men taught to drive them. Carts had been 
brought all the way from India, and much 
money had been spent, and months of hard 
rough labor had been given to make travel 
by carts a success ; but the little brown flies 
with their poisonous stings spoiled it all. 
It was discouraging indeed; but listen to 
the missionary, who had done the hardest 
work of all. 

" Small beginnings may lead to some- 
thing higher and better in the future, but 
the first steps cannot be anything but tedi- 
ous. The longest night has always had a 
dawn when done, and here I do believe no 
far distant time will see a very different 
order of things from what has been always 
in the past. We are indeed groping in the 
dark as to how or what we ought to do first, 
but great bodies grow slowly, and the gar- 
68 



JUNGLE ROADS AND OX-CARTS 

den of the devil cannot be reclaimed for 
God all in a year. This will certainly be 
yet a highway for the King Himself, and 
all that pass this way will come to know his 
name." 

Why should this one white man be so 
hopeful? When traveling on foot, he had 
barely escaped death from fever. He had 
failed in building a road. What would he 
attempt next 1 Indeed, what was there left 
for him to try ? 



CHAPTER IV 

TWO RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

WHAT of the rest of the brave band 
who started together from England? 
A grave to be found on a small island off 
the coast near Zanzibar told the story of 
one; and by the shores of Victoria Lake on 
a wooden slab above a mound of earth could 
have been read the name, "Dr. John 
Smith." Two more of the party had re- 
turned to their English homes as invalids. 
While Mr. Mackay was still cutting, digging, 
and leveling for the road to Mpwapwa, the 
other three members of the party that re- 
mained were camping beside the far-reach- 
ing waters of Victoria Lake. They were 
Lieutenant Smith, Mr. O'Neill and Mr. Wil- 
son. 

To these men tenting on the lake shore 
70 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

came two most cordial letters from the king 
they were so eager to see. Twice canoes 
appeared before their camps and guides 
came from Mutesa to escort them to his 
kingdom. These letters had been written 
in English by a black boy named Mufta, who 
had been educated in a Christian school on 
the coast and had been left by Mr. Stanley 
with Mutesa to read the Bible to him. This 
is a copy of the second royal letter : 




71 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



v 



With so urgent an appeal from the king 
himself, little wonder is it that two of the 
white men, leaving Mr. O'Neill to guard 
their supplies and to repair the steam 
launch, hastened alone to the northern shore 
of the lake. 

It was about an hour after sunset on a 
June day in 1877, when their boats were 
anchored off a little Uganda village at the 
head of a beautiful bay. Here they were 
left by their guides who went to the king to 
announce the coming of the white men. 
Soon some of Mutesa's chief men arrived to 

72 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

say that they must come to his palace with 
the escort the king had sent. 

A most interesting walk it was to the 
capital city, taking all of two days. Plan- 
tain groves covered thousands of acres of 
hillsides. Here the missionaries found 
themselves in a great tropical park, where, 
through the branches of the trees, glimpses 
of the beautiful lake could be had. There 
they wound their way through the thick for- 
est, where the tall trees were heavily fes- 
tooned with tropical vines of rare beauty. 
Again, they stopped to rest by a cool, clear 
stream in the midst of a valley abounding 
in ferns and palms. On the march once 
more, they crossed a broad swamp by way 
of a log road. At last Rubaga, the capital 
city, was reached, where they were shown to 
the huts made ready for them by the king's 
order. 

The first day the king paid his respects by 

sending a rich present of cooking utensils, 

plantains, potatoes, sugar-cane, milk, 

ppmbe, venison, and firewood. Promptly 

73 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



at eight o'clock the following morning, two 
of the chief officers of the king came to es- 
cort them to the palace. These officers were 
superbly costumed in garbs modeled after 
the Arab style. Their white trousers, tunics, 
and stockings, were beautifully set off by 
red shoes and caps. As the missionaries 
climbed the hill leading to the palace, they 
were escorted by several soldiers dressed 
in white, each carrying a flint-lock musket. 
Behind them paraded a crowd of Waganda 
dressed for the most part in long, loose 
brown gowns made from fig-tree bark. Al- 
together, the officers, the soldiers, the white 
men, and the crowd in long procession made 
a sight that was picturesque indeed. 

The broad, straight road which led up to 
the royal hill, superb in itself, was made es- 
pecially imposing by the tall fence of tiger 
grass enclosing it on either side. To build 
these fences posts ten or twelve feet in 
height were driven into the ground at in- 
tervals of a few yards. In and out were 
then woven long, thick, horizontal ropes of 
74 




OFFICERS OF THE 



KING CAME TO ESCORT 
PALACE " 



THEM TO THE 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

reed-like grass stalks. Finally to make the 
meshes closer, there were tied to the fence 
many vertical stalks of the same kind of 
grass. Fences such as this lined all the im- 
portant roads in Uganda and were used also 
to enclose the private yards about the huts. 

At the top of the hill stood Mutesa's pal- 
ace a building forty feet in height and sup- 
ported on each side by straight wooden pil- 
lars. The graceful yellow stems of tiger 
grass formed its walls, and its roof, too, was 
thatched with grass. With its seventy feet 
of length, the structure was easily the larg- 
est in the realm. To the front of the palace 
were a number of courts separated from one 
another by high grass fences, with sliding 
doors of grass connecting them. 

As the white men neared the royal en- 
closure, a bugle announced their coming, 
the gates of the courts were opened one by 
one as the party approached, and quickly 
closed behind them as they passed. Two 
lines of white-robed soldiers made a lane 
through each court, each soldier carrying a 
75 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



gun. As the last gate opened and closed, 
Lieutenant Smith and Mr. Wilson found 
themselves before the open door of the pal- 
ace itself. 

In the central hall, on stools ranged in two 
rows on either side of the entrance, sat all 
the chiefs of the country. Some were 
dressed in black, some were in white, and 
some in red; but all the costumes were of 
Arabian pattern. All the chiefs arose as the 
white men entered. The guests were con- 
ducted to the upper end of the hall where on 
a chair of white wood sat his majesty, King 
Mutesa. The king was wearing a black Arab 
tunic trimmed with gold braid. His trous- 
ers and stockings were white, and his cap 
and shoes were red. In his belt, he carried 
a richly mounted sword. At his feet lay a 
small rug, while the rest of the hall was car- 
peted with grass. 

As the Englishmen approached, Mutesa 
arose from his throne, shook hands with 
them, and then by a wave of the hand di- 
rected them to two stools near him which 
76 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

had been reserved for them. Forthwith 
there was much beating of drums. Five 
minutes of noise gave an opportunity for all 
in the room to feast their eyes on the cen- 
tral figures of this reception at court. 
When the drums had finished their din, the 
king, called one of the messengers whom he 
had sent to bring the white men to Uganda. 
He bade him tell the story of their adven- 
tures. 

Letters were then read from the Sultan 
of Zanzibar and from the Church Mission- 
ary Society in London. The English of the 
letter from England was translated for the 
king by Muf ta. This was the way it read : 

"To His Majesty King Mutesa, Euler of 
Uganda. 

1 'Sire: We have heard with pleasure, 
through our friend Mr. Stanley, of your 
earnest invitation to English teachers to 
come and settle in your kingdom, promising 
them your favor and protection. 

* i The greatness of England, of which you 
have heard, is due to the Word of God 
77 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



which we possess; her laws are framed in 
accordance with it; her people are made 
happy by it. Our desire is that your throne 
should be made secure , your country be 
made great, and your people made happy by 
the same means. 

"We have resolved, therefore, by the help 
of God, to send to you two or three of our 
friends, who will be prepared to settle 
among your people, and to teach them the 
Word of God, and other knowledge which 
will be useful. . . . From what Mr. 
Stanley has told us, we are sure you will 
give them a warm welcome when they ar- 
rive, and treat them kindly, and take care 
that they want nothing. 

' ' Commending you to the grace and bless- 
ing of the Most High God, who is King of 
kings and Lord of lords, and whose servants 
we are, 

We desire to subscribe ourselves, 
Your Majesty's friends and well-wishers. ' ' 

In the midst of the reading of the letter, 
the king ordered the firing of a salute, and 
78 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

a general rejoicing to be made, and at the 
close of the reading, the expressions of glad- 
ness seemed to have no bounds. The king, 
half rising from his chair, called his chief 
musician and ordered a more vigorous re- 
joicing. Drums were beaten, horns were 
blown, and all the assembly of chiefs were 
bowing their heads and clapping their 
hands, and saying again and again, "Nyan- 
zig," "Nyanzig," "We thank you," "We 
thank you." The king asked his interpre- 
ter to tell the white men that what they saw 
and heard was all for the name of Jesus. 

After some conversation, the white men 
presented their gifts to the king. These in- 
cluded a Turkish rug, a map of Africa, 
photographs, and other articles. Lieuten- 
ant Smith apologized for the small number 
of things they had to give, saying that some 
had been stolen from them on the way. 

To this the king graciously replied: 
" Great rivers swallow up small ones. Now 
I have seen your faces, I do not look on the 
presents." 

79 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



The next morning the missionaries had a 
second conversation with the king in the 
presence of all his chiefs and courtiers. 
For some reason, Mutesa seemed suspicious 
of them and began to inquire about General 
Gordon of the English army in Egypt. He 
wanted the white men to make guns and 
gunpowder, at the same time confessing 
"My heart is not good." The missionaries 
told him that they had to do as the letter 
said and not to make guns; and that if he 
did not wish them to stay, they would leave 
Uganda. For some time he was silent, then 
asked: "What have you come for to 
teach my people to read and write ?" 

"Yes," they replied, "and whatever use- 
ful arts we and those coming may know." 

Then calling his interpreter, the king 
said: "Tell them now my heart is good; 
England is my friend. I have one hand in 
Uganda, and the other in England. ' ' 

When the missionaries reached their huts 
after the morning ~baraza [court] was over, 
there came to them a messenger from Mu- 
80 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

tesa saying that there was one more word 
which he wanted to say to them, but he had 
been afraid to say it before all the people. 
Eager to know what this further message 
was, Lieutenant Smith and Mr. Wilson in 
the afternoon went a third time to the king's 
palace. They found him seated in a side 
room with only a few chiefs and one wife 
present. 

He said: "There is one word I want to 
say to you. I was afraid to speak it this 
morning because the Arabs were present. 
This is it, Did you bring 'The Book"? 
That is all I want." 

They told him they had it in English and 
Arabic, and part of it in the language 
spoken at the coast which Mutesa knew 
slightly, and they hoped soon to give it to 
him in Luganda [the language of Uganda]. 

Then Mutesa 's heart was very good. He 
took the white men out into his palace 
grounds and showed them the beautiful 
views which could be had from various po- 
sitions. He also pointed out two sites which 
81 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



he said he would give them, one for a mis- 
sion house, the other for a school. 

"When will they be built?" they asked. 

"To-morrow my people shall go and bring 
wood," and the king was as good as his 
word ; for the next day the work began. 

Such a welcome was most encouraging. 
After a month 's stay in the hut Mutesa had 
built for them, Lieutenant Smith said 
good-by to Mr. Wilson and started for the 
southern end of the lake to tell Mr. O'Neill 
how royally Mutesa had received them. He 
expected to help Mr. O 'Neill launch the mis- 
sionary boat and pack supplies. Then to- 
gether they would return to Uganda. But 
their hopes were never realized. While on 
one of the islands in the southern part of 
the lake, both Mr. Smith and Mr. O'Neill 
were heartlessly murdered by the natives. 

The terrible news was reported to Mr. 
Mackay before his oxen and carts had 
reached Mpwapwa. His cattle had been dy- 
ing three and four a day. The dusky na- 
tives were daily jeering at the white man's 
82 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

failure. He himself had just recovered 
from another attack of fever. Just at that 
moment, he heard that two more of their 
band had been taken from them. 

Broken-hearted, yet believing in his God, 
he wrote to a friend at home: "Our good 
doctor, my own dear friend of many years, 
went to his rest nine months ago, and 
now these brave brothers, Smith and O'Neill, 
have fallen. There were eight of us sent 
out two invalided and four gone home! 
Only two remaining. Poor Africa ! When 
will it become a Christian country at this 
rate ? But God has other hands in reserve, 
whom he will bring to the front, fast and 
unexpectedly, and the work will go on 
whether we break down or not." 

Since a wealthy Arab merchant had been 
murdered along with the missionaries, Mr. 
Mackay was afraid that the Arabs would 
take revenge on the king who had murdered 
them. Eager to prevent further bloodshed, 
he decided to hurry to the lake as fast as 
possible. 

83 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Bundles and bags were safely stored, and 
Mr. Tytherleigh was left to see that the best 
two of the carts, emptied of all freight, were 
dragged to Mpwapwa. Mackay himself 
sped forward as fast as possible. Five days 
of quick marching, wading and swimming 
through jungles, swamps, and rivers, 
brought him to Mpwapwa. A brief rest, and 
he was again on a forced march, with only 
six men to carry outfit, food, and medicine. 

Although hurrying as fast as he was able, 
he saw three months go by before he reached 
Kagei, a little town on the southern shore of 
Victoria Lake. The body of his only white 
companion, Mr. Tytherleigh, was laid in a 
grave by the way. Mr. Mackay tramped 
through jungles, plodded along sandy des- 
erts, and picked his way over stony stretches 
till his feet were blistered and bleeding. 
Every step was painful. Repeated attacks 
of fever reduced him almost to a skeleton. 
But on the evening of the thirteenth of June, 
forgetting his weakness and pain, with in- 
tense joy he stood on the shore of .Victoria 
84 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

Lake. At last his miserable marching was 
over, and he too could hope soon to present 
himself at the court of King Mutesa. 

June passed, and July, and August. In- 
deed it was not till November (1878), that 
Mr. Mackay entered the capital of Uganda. 
Two years and a half had passed since he 
had said good-by to his friends in the home- 
land. Two years and a half spent merely in 
traveling! And he had not yet even seen 
the king who had asked Stanley to send him 
missionaries. 

But Mutesa had not forgotten his request. 
For over a year Mr. Wilson had lived near 
his palace, and the black king had learned 
to like him. Mr. Wilson had told his Maj- 
esty of the other white man who was on his 
way, and Mutesa grew very eager to receive 
Mr. Mackay. But the day he arrived the 
king was ill. He merely sent his salaams 
and two fat goats. Two days later, however, 
word came that the king was holding laraza, 
and wished to see Mr. Wilson and Mr. 
Mackay at once. Carrying their presents 
85 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



with them they started off for the palace. 
Mr. Mackay will tell his own story of their 
reception. 

" Messenger after messenger came run- 
ning like madmen to hurry us on, but I was 
determined not to give way to the frantic 
behavior of these excited couriers, and kept 
a steady step. At length we entered on the 
grand esplanade, running east and west 
along the top of the hill and ending in the 
palace at the west end. The gates were 
opened, the grand guard presented arms, 
and we passed along through the double row 
of guards, into a large hall, densely lined 
with courtiers. At the far end was a door, 
through which we were ushered into the 
presence of the king. Here he was, seated 
on a mat, dressed in a long white robe and 
long black coat richly embroidered with gold 
braid. He bowed politely, and stools were 
brought for us to sit on, while some Turkish- 
dressed attendants squatted on the ground. 
An old woman sat behind the king, a little 
way off, and watched intently. For ten 
86 



RECEPTIONS AT THE ROYAL PALACE 

minutes we eyed each other in dead silence. 
Then a little talk began. Our gifts were 
presented, and the music-box struck up the 
fine air, 'The heavens are telling,' from 
Haydn ? s oratorio called ' Creation.' 

"We talked with him on many subjects 
for an hour. The king told us he had been 
led to suspect the coming of Englishmen to 
his country as a danger to his throne, but 
now a year had passed since Lieutenant 
Smith and Mr. Wilson first arrived, and all 
his intercourse with our party had only 
tended to raise us in his favor. 

"After some time the king intimated that 
he was too ill to sit long, and gave us per- 
mission to go. We left, the whole court ris- 
ing and following us down the hill small 
boys, as usual, forming a majority of the 
spectators and followers. In the evening 
the king sent us no less than ten fat cattle as 
a present, and a man's load of tobacco with 
a like quantity of both coffee and honey. ' ' 

This then was the sort of reception given 
by King Mutesa to the first English mission- 
87 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



aries of Uganda. He showed every sign of 
being glad to have them in his country. He 
supplied them generously with food. He 
gave them huts to live in. He built them a 
mission house and school building. At court 
he listened attentively to their messages. 
He observed the Christian Sabbath, and 
welcomed Christian services at his court. 
Every prospect was encouraging, and with 
gratitude the missionaries carried on their 
work. 



88 



CHAPTER V, 

WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN BECOME 
ACQUAINTED 

A MILE and a half down the hill from 
** Mutesa's palace was the grass hut 
where lived the two white men. During the 
first few weeks after their arrival, they had 
lived nearer the royal hill; but, because of 
the jealousy of the chiefs, the king was 
obliged to have their quarters moved farther 
away, for according to custom the greatest 
chief should live nearest the palace. The 
Arabs, too, were jealous and had told the 
king that if he allowed the white men to 
build their own home, it would be a fortress 
of brick, and they would soon take his king- 
dom away from him. 

So the white men's African home was 
nothing but a rectangular hut with open 
89 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



spaces left in the tiger-grass walls for win- 
dows. The thatched roof was shaped some- 
thing like a cocked hat ; and in front, it ex- 
tended a few feet beyond the walls, making 
a sort of veranda. The rooms within, 
formed by tiger-grass partitions^ were 
broken up by numerous poles which served 
as roof -supports, and in the dark as obsta- 
cles to bump against. 

Mutesa had given the white men almost 
two acres of land, and it was not long before 
a number of houses were built upon it. 
Within four months after Mr. Mackay's ar- 
rival, five missionary recruits from England 
reached the capital, making in all a party of 
seven missionaries. As homes for these 
several other huts were built. One man be- 
ing a doctor, built a dispensary where he 
might receive his patients. Mr. Mackay put 
up two workshops where he might have a 
school of mechanics. A schoolhouse was 
king Mutesa 's gift. An extensive garden 
was planted with vegetable seeds brought 
from England. Five hundred banana plants 
90 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

were set out, and the entire plot of land en- 
closed by a tall tiger-grass fence. Before 
long, the missionary headquarters began to 
be very attractive. 

It is true that in such primitive dwellings 
not a few discomforts had to be undergone. 
Had the missionaries enjoyed anything bet- 
ter than a mud floor or indulged in more 
than a few pieces of plain furniture, the na- 
tives would have become suspicious. Yet 
the white men were ambitious to show them- 
selves true friends of the black men, and 
so every day it was their custom to eat 
some plain native foods. Frequently they 
would sit down in the home of a friendly 
native of Uganda to a meal of meat and 
bananas. But, try as hard as they might to 
live plainly among the natives, there were 
many things about them and their actions 
which seemed strange to the black men. 

The large oval table was a most wonderful 

piece of furniture to the Waganda. To us 

it would have seemed a very crude affair, 

for Mr. Mackay had made it by screwing to- 

91 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



gether two big half-oval parts of the steam 
launch, and mounting them on six poles 
which were stuck in the mud floor. Then 
too the black men were bewildered by the 
strange fire [the lamp] which the white men 
kept burning on the table from which they 
ate. The knives and forks also perplexed 
the natives, who were accustomed to use 
only their fingers for handling food. "Per- 
haps," they thought, "these long, stiff 
things the white men eat with are a part of 
their hands." They looked with curious 
eyes on the white men's clothes; their 
shoes, especially, were beyond comprehen- 
sion. "Why is it," they asked themselves, 
"that the Englishmen have white faces and 
hands and black feet with toes all joined 
into one?" 

All these and other odd customs made the 
Waganda flock in crowds to stare at the 
strangers and to watch the things they did. 
But after a few months had passed, the 
novelty began to wear off, and the mission- 
aries were no longer feared. The chiefs be- 
92 




; THE MARVELS OF THE MAGIC LANTERN " 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

came their friends, and every day one or 
more of them called. 

The white men continued to do many 
things which seemed most wonderful to the 
ignorant people of Uganda. From the first, 
Mackay became a special favorite of the 
king and chiefs because of the marvelous 
things he could make. Often Mr. Mackay 's 
workshop was filled with chiefs and slaves 
together, who stood and gazed with curi- 
osity as he toiled away with his tools. His 
blacksmith's forge and bellows and his turn- 
ing-lathe were marvels unseen before in 
Uganda; and, as they saw him sharpen a 
knife on the revolving grindstone, they 
were greatly puzzled to know what made the 
wheels- go round. 

In the evenings Mr. Mackay often de- 
lighted a company of natives with the mar- 
vels of the magic lantern. What mattered it 
to them that the chimney had been built of 
two biscuit cans, one placed on top of the 
other and tacked into a wooden box ? Their 
wonder centered in the pictures. 
93 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



When Mr. Mackay's skill became widely 
known, miscellaneous articles for him to re- 
pair were heaped upon the bench in his 
workshop. Native-made steel hoes and 
hatchets were given him to temper. They 
said it was by means of witchcraft that he 
was able to put hardness into steel and then 
take it out again. No kind of wheel had 
ever before been seen in Uganda, and any 
sort of rotary motion seemed marvelous to 
the natives. Even when one day he rolled 
several logs up a hill, great crowds followed 
him, crying, "Mahay lubare! Makay lubarr, 
ttala!" ["Mackay is the great spirit; 
Mackay is truly the great spirit. ' '] 

On one occasion, Mutesa asked to see a 
steam-engine. Mr. Mackay tells the story: 
"I went up with one from the steam launch 
we brought last trip the first article of the 
kind ever in this part of the world. The 
king asked many intelligent questions about 
it. I took a screw-key with me to show how 
the parts can be taken asunder, when the 
king came out with one of his 'pretty say- 
94 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

ings/ He said, 'White men's wisdom comes 
from God. They see the human body is all 
in pieces joints and limbs and that is why 
they make such things in pieces too ! ' ' 

" After much talk, he asked how white 
men came to know so much did they al- 
ways know these things ? I replied that once 
Englishmen were savages and knew nothing 
at all, but from the day we became Chris- 
tians our knowledge grew more and more, 
and every year we were wiser than we were 
before." 

"I guess God will not prosper any man/' 
the king said, "that does not please him." 

"God is kind to all," Mackay answered, 
"but especially to these who love and fear 
him." 

"Eh, Eh" ["Yes, Yes"] answered Mu- 
tesa. 

So, because of his mechanical skill, Mr. 
Mackay had an opportunity to teach Mu- 
tesa and his court who the people are who 
really prosper and become wise. 

However, it did not satisfy Mr. Mackay 
95 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



to have the crowds look up to him as the 
great man who was able to make anything. 
His ambition was to gather pupils and to 
teach them to make useful things for their 
own people. 

At first Mutesa would not allow any one 
to be taught, neither did the men and boys 
wish to learn, for in Uganda it was an honor 
for a man to be idle. In that tropical cli- 
mate and rich country, little or no work 
needed to be done to obtain abundant crops 
of fruits and vegetables. To support a 
large family with their simple ways of liv- 
ing meant little labor for the head of the 
house. What work was to be done was 
given to the slaves and the women. A 
"gentleman" in Uganda, therefore, had lit- 
tle to do but to order his slaves and wives 
about, and to attend the daily baraza of the 
king. That Mr. Mackay was willing to 
work with his hands was not the least won- 
derful thing about him. It required a long 
time for him to teach them that a Christian 
ought not to be an idle man. 
96 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

It was not so difficult a task to persuade 
the natives to come to the missionaries' 
house to learn to read. At first the king 
forbade any going to the white men even for 
this purpose, probably because he was 
afraid they would soon be able to outstrip 
him in their ability to read. 

It was little more than a month, however, 
after Mackay's arrival when the edict was 
withdrawn, and Mr. Mackay wrote: "I 
have a whole lot of pupils, old and young. 
Some have made wonderful progress al- 
ready, for Waganda are most apt, as a rule. 
I find the slaves, however, usually twice as 
quick as their masters." 

It was the English alphabet which he 
taught them, but Luganda words which they 
learned to spell. On large sheets of paper 
the missionaries copied big, clear letters, 
making easy syllables or words and sen- 
tences. The number of pupils steadily in- 
creased, so that it was difficult for the mis- 
sionaries to make reading sheets fast 
enough. 

97 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



The coming of these pupils, eager to learn 
to read, was most encouraging ; yet the mis- 
sionaries ' opportunities for being helpful to 
the Waganda were not confined to their 
homes and the schoolhouse. King Mutesa 
was urgent in his frequent invitations to 
them to attend the morning baraza at the 
palace, and to tell him and his chiefs of the 
ways of white men and their religion. 
Every Sabbath morning it was his custom to 
hold a religious service in the palace. At 
these times, week days and Sundays, the 
missionaries talked on many subjects to the 
king and his chiefs. Sometimes it was 
about the two countries, England and 
Uganda. 

"You would sometimes be amused to hear 
the high idea entertained by the king and 
people about their own country," Mr. 
Mackay wrote, "It is only natural, however. 
Not long ago Mutesa said to me : 'Mackay, 
when I become friends with England, God 
in heaven will be witness that England will 
not come to make war on Uganda, nor 
98 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

Uganda go to make war on England ! And 
when I go to England, ' lie continued, 'I shall 
take greatness and glory with me, and shall 
bring greatness and glory back again. 
Every one will say, 'Oh, Mutesa is coming!' 
when I reach England; and when I return, 
'Oh, Mutesa is coming back again!' ' 

* l Of course, at such statements I only look 
very grave, and say, 'Just so, exactly.' At 
present, (do not laugh) Mutesa really be- 
lieves that Uganda is the most powerful 
country in the world. Though he fears 
Egypt, he has often spoken of going to fight 
against Colonel Gordon. I have had some 
stiff arguments with him on this point. 
You will understand that in such matters 
I must be very careful. A king that is 
used to nothing but flattery from his court- 
iers, whose lives he can take at any moment 
if they do anything other than flatter him, 
is no ordinary individual to speak plainly 
to. One needs a smooth tongue when speak- 
ing to him. 

"I do not mean to say that I am afraid of 
99 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



him, but there is no use giving offense. 
And yet the truth can be told, although not 
in just so many words. In sacred matters, 
however, I do very differently. In teaching 
the relations between man and God I make 
no mincing of matters. When I have to say 
what goes hard against heathen custom and 
pride and love of self, I give my message, 
saying it is not mine but God's command." 

King Mutesa was quick to understand 
what was explained to him ; yet things which 
are very commonplace to civilized men he 
had never heard of before. iWhen Mr. 
Mackay told him in a simple way about the 
railroads and steamships, and explained 
what the telephone and telegraph could do, 
the king was greatly delighted. 

This is the way Mackay summed it up, 
and Mutesa was deeply impressed: "My 
forefathers made the wind their slave ; then 
they enchained water; next they enslaved 
steam; but now the terrible lightning is the 
white man's slave, and a capital one it is, 
too!" 

100 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

Their first Christmas in Uganda was duly 
celebrated at court. Mr. Mackay having ex- 
plained the meaning of the day, a great flag 
was hoisted above the palace, as was usual 
on Sundays, and all the chiefs appeared in 
extraordinary dress. Mr. Mackay read the 
story of the birth of Jesus, as told in St. 
Luke's Gospel, and explained the meaning 
of the song of the angels. Being asked to 
tell more, he related the story of Jesus ' boy- 
hood and young manhood at Nazareth, and 
tried to show by Jesus' example, that it was 
an honor to work with one's hands. 
- Seme days later, an Arab trader presented 
himself at court with guns and cloth which 
he wanted to sell for slaves. He offered one 
red cloth for one slave ; one musket for two 
slaves ; and one hundred percussion caps for 
one female slave. 

Since Mackay was present that morning, 
he was given an opportunity to speak. In 
the presence of all the chiefs and courtiers, 
he told the king how cruelly the poor slaves 
were treated during their journeys to the 
101 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



coast. Mutesa was so much moved that he 
declared he would sell no more slaves to the 
Arabs, and the traders were obliged to sell 
their guns and cloth for ivory only. 

Some days later, Mr. Mackay took a book 
on physiology to the palace. By means of 
pictures, he showed the king the different 
parts of the body, and how the blood circu- 
lates through them all. He explained many 
things so that Mutesa might see how won- 
derfully perfect the human body is, and that 
no man or group of men in all the world 
could ever make one. "Yet," he said, "the 
Arabs wish to buy these perfect bodies with 
immortal souls within them, each for a rag 
of cloth which one man can make in a day. ' ' 

Mutesa was convinced of the wrong, and 
decreed that from that time no one in his 
kingdom should sell a slave on pain of death. 

"The best decree you have ever made, 
King Mutesa," said Mr. Mackay: but alas, 
it was one thing for Mutesa to make a de- 
cree and another to see that his words were 
faithfully carried out. 
102 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

Often on Sabbaths Mr. Mackay read to 
the king some of the parables Jesus told. 
One day, he read the story of the old gar- 
ment and the new cloth (Luke v. 36), how it 
was not wise to tear a piece off of a new 
garment and patch an old garment with it ; 
for the new garment would be spoiled and 
the patch would not look well on the old 
gown. 

So, he told the king, it was just as fool- 
ish for him to patch up his old heathen life 
by doing a few Christian things. It was 
no use for him to try to be a heathen and 
a Christian at the same time, to keep on 
living with his three hundred wives and to 
pretend to be a Christian; to buy and sell 
God's children as slaves, and to claim to 
follow Jesus; to treat his subjects cruelly 
and to order them killed for every little of- 
fense, and still to pray at Christian service 
on Sunday. 

Another morning at court, Mr. Mackay 
read the parable of the sower and the seed, 
and invited the king and chiefs to talk freely 
103 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



together about it. Mutesa was so deeply im- 
pressed by the explanation of the parable 
that he said to his chiefs, "Isa [Jesus], was 
there ever any one like him?" 

So at the beginning of their life in Ugan- 
da there was much to encourage the mis- 
sionaries. But King Mutesa was not always 
the earnest, interested learner he seemed at 
first to be. He was a king with two very 
different faces, and he showed whichever he 
chose when the white men were present. 

Shortly after Mr. Mackay arrived in 
Uganda, the missionaries were surprised to 
learn that a group of French Catholic 
priests were on their way to Mutesa 's land. 
On their arrival, the king received them 
with his accustomed cordiality and pomp. 
But from that time trouble began. Protes- 
tants and Catholics both believe themselves 
to be Christians, yet their beliefs about 
Christ and the Bible are not alike. 

King Mutesa seemed bewildered. ' 1 Every 
white man has a different religion," he said. 
".What am I to believed Who is right? 
104 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

First I was a heathen, then a Mohammedan, 
then a Christian; now other white men 
come and tell me these English are wrong. 
Perhaps if I follow these new men, then 
other white men will come and tell me these 
also are wrong." Sometimes King Mu- 
tesa was kind to the French missionaries: 
sometimes he seemed to favor the English 
more. Sometimes he was disagreeable to 
both. Since the white men in the country 
were regarded as the personal guests of the 
king, Mutesa was expected to give them 
homes to live in and from his royal bounty 
to provide their daily food. This he did 
most generously until after the French Cath- 
olics came. Then many a day both English 
and French alike suffered from hunger be- 
cause Mutesa neglected to send them ba- 
nanas and cowry-shells, which were Uganda 
money. The urgent suggestion even 
reached the Englishmen that they should 
"clear out as quickly as possible, as the 
king's soldiers were only waiting to kill them 
all." Later by several weeks, they heard 
105 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



that Mutesa was very ill and did not expect 
to recover; that a meeting of chiefs and 
Arabs had been held, at which it was de- 
cided to murder all the Englishmen, should 
Mutesa die. 

Requests from the missionaries for per- 
mission to leave the country were persist- 
ently refused by the king. Finally, how- 
ever, he decided to send three of his own 
subjects to visit the great Queen Victoria 
and two missionaries were allowed to go as 
an escort. Two others of the party left 
Uganda to start missionary work in a city 
several hundred miles south of the end of 
the lake, and Mr. Pearson accompanied them 
for a short distance, to get supplies. For 
some months, Mr. Mackay and Mr. Litch- 
field were left alone in Uganda. 

Strange to say, during these months King 
Mutesa turned about and showed his bet- 
ter face. In the many discussions at court 
from week to week, he usually took Mackay 's 
part. The Sunday services again were held 
regularly. 

106 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

Mutesa became enthusiastic over the sub- 
ject of book knowledge, and even com- 
manded all his chiefs, officials, pages, and 
soldiers to learn to read. No one could 
quite explain the sudden change which had 
come over him. The mission house was be- 
seiged by eager learners. All day long 
Mackay and Litchfield were never without 
pupils about them, some of whom were wait- 
ing even at daylight. It was fortunate for 
them that the small printing-press had ar- 
rived. Long into the night they worked, 
printing sheets which during the day men 
and boys were taught to read. All the 
blank paper they had was used and much of 
their personal w T riting-paper ; yet the de- 
mand could not be satisfied. 

On his return from the southern end of 
the lake, Mr. Pearson was greatly surprised 
at the change in the situation. "On several 
occasions, when going to the palace," said 
he, "I saw small groups sitting under the 
shade of some high fence, going through 
their sheets ; on the way I met many carry- 
107 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



ing their sheets rolled up nicely, with a cov- 
ering of bark cloth for the hand. At the 
court the chiefs sat waiting for the king to 
open Toaraza, and passed the time with their 
sheets. 

"I had one thought in my mind, surely 
this is the finger of God." 

King Mutesa would have done- for a Chi- 
nese puzzle. One Sabbath in court, in the 
midst of the enthusiasm over reading, he 
made a sudden request of Mr. Mackay. 
After the Scripture lesson was read, he 
asked abruptly, "Can any one baptize ?" 

"No," was the answer. 

"Can you?" 

"No, but the clergyman is qualified to do 
so." 

"I wish to be baptized and my chiefs." 

Mr. Mackay told the king that only those 
who were true Christians should be bap- 
tized. Jesus had said, as one could tell the 
kind of tree by the fruit it bore, so one 
could tell a true Christian by the sort of life 
he lived. Mr. Mackay had not seen either 
108 



WHITE MEN AND BLACK MEN 

liiiii or his chiefs giving up lying, witchcraft, 
murder, Sabbath-breaking, or any of their 
evil habits. Then, too, if the king wished 
to be baptized, he must be willing to live with 
only one wife. 

Mutesa acknowledged that the Uganda 
custom of having a great many wives did 
much harm ; yet he had once resolved to live 
two years with no wife at all, he said, but 
after two months he did as he had always 
done. 

Several days later, Mackay went to the 
palace and found the king arguing with the 
Arabs over the Koran, their sacred book. 
He again showed interest in the subject of 
baptism. He said he would put away his 
wives and follow Christ truly. He wanted 
one wife only in their place, and preferred 
that she be a white woman. Since he was 
a king, he said, his wife should be a king's 
daughter. He tried to persuade Mr. 
Mackay to write to Queen Victoria for one 
of her daughters. He would give a thou- 
sand elephant tusks for her. 
109 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Mr. Mackay told him that he would prob- 
ably not be able to get her, for in England 
no woman ever married unless she wished to 
do so. At this, Mutesa was very much sur- 
prised, and without more ado court was dis- 
missed. 

Like the tall grass about his own court- 
yard when shaken by the wind, Mutesa 
swayed back and forth, uncertain in his at- 
titude towards his visitors. He gloried over 
having the white men in his capital because 
of the presents they brought and the things 
they could do. Now he would favor the 
French, and again he would favor the En- 
glish, so that he could keep them both in 
the country. The missionaries knew not 
what to expect of him or how much to be- 
lieve of what he said. Yet there was no 
insult or privation they were unwilling to 
endure if only in the end Mutesa could be 
brought to be a follower of Christ. 



110 



CHAPTER VI 

THE KING AND THE WIZARD 

ABOUT Christmas time in the year 1879, 
there were two names which, in the 
region of Uganda's capital, seemed to be on 
everybody's lips. One was that of Mu- 
kasa, the great wizard who lived on an is- 
land in Victoria Lake, and the other was 
the name of Mr. Mackay. The great wiz- 
ard's name was always spoken with rever- 
ence and fear ; Mackay 's was usually coupled 
with a curse. Indeed, many would have 
been glad to see him tortured to death. 

For some time it had been rumored that 
the great wizard of the lake was on his way 
to the capital. Month after month, Arab 
traders had tried to get away from the coun- 
try to take their ivory and slaves to the 
coast; but, when they went to the port on 
111 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



the lake, they were always refused canoes 
because, it was said, "The great wizard of 
the Lake is about to visit the king." The 
great spirit or god of Uganda was supposed 
to be living within this wizard, and for this 
reason he was greatly feared. 

Many other less powerful spirits or gods 
were worshiped by the Waganda. When 
the people were anxious about their crops, 
they went to the god of food ; when threat- 
ened by famine, they went to the god of 
famine ; in time of war offerings were made 
to the god of war; on other occasions, it 
was the god of the earthquake, or the god 
of the plague, or the god of the smallpox, 
which was most worshiped. 

Here and there, along the roadside, under 
some tree, or in the private courtyards of 
the chiefs were to be seen the tiny huts, 
already described, which were sacred to one 
or another of these gods. In some of them 
dwelt the wizards and witches, in whom the 
spirits or gods were supposed to live. 

Yery plainly were these strange folk 
112 




THE GREAT ^YIZARD OF THE LAKE is ABOUT TO VISIT THE 
KING " 



KING AND WIZARD 



dressed, usually in simple robes of goat- 
skins only ; and they carried clubs of crooked 
wood decorated with iron knobs and bells. 
Now and then a wizard, assuming a high fal- 
setto voice, would rave like a lunatic. The 
people thinking that the spirit within him 
was angry, would bring him cows and chick- 
ens and goats as gifts and even a great many 
pots of beer, for the spirits were supposed 
to need very much to drink. When offering 
such gifts the Waganda would be praying 
the best kind of prayers they knew, while 
the wizard would make them think more 
prayers were needed. 

These men and women of magic also made 
a great many trinkets, sometimes simply 
from bunches of grass, or again from the 
teeth of animals, or from odd-shaped stones. 
After mumbling mysterious words over 
these trifles, the sacred men sold the trin- 
kets to the people as charms. When worn 
about the neck or ankles, or when placed 
above the doorways of the homes or hung 
about the tiny huts where they made their 
113 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



offerings, the Waganda thought these 
charms a protection against the numerous 
evils over which the gods had control. 

Of all these spirits, the greatest was the 
god of the lake. If a chief wished to learn 
what this god could tell him of the chances 
for success in some war, shortly to be entered 
upon, he would go to the god's island home 
in the lake. There lived an old man, 
named Mukasa, the god's wizard. 

The chief would meet the wizard in a 
small, dark hut, where there was a little 
wooden stool covered with a heap of bark 
cloth. On one end of the leopard skin on 
which stood the sacred stool, the chief would 
kneel, and on the other end the old wizard 
would take his place. After some time the 
spirit would supposedly enter underneath 
the bark cloths over the stool. The wizard, 
thereupon, would be thrown into a frenzy 
and would pour forth unearthly noises, giv- 
ing the chief now and then a word which 
might be understood. After being duly im- 
pressed by this weird proceeding, the chief 
114 



KING AND WIZARD 



would leave, believing that he had heard the 
words of the great spirit. 

Mukasa, the great wizard of the lake, 
now actually left his island home and vis- 
ited the capital of Uganda. For two years 
king Mutesa had suffered with a painful 
disease. Many native doctors had tried to 
cure him. For a time he had been treated 
by one of the missionaries, who was a physi- 
cian, and Mutesa was temporarily benefited ; 
but refusing to give up some of his wicked 
habits of life which had first brought on the 
trouble, he received no permanent good. 
Since he suffered intensely and was daily 
growing weaker, it was rumored again and 
again that he would soon die. 

Finally, the queen mother together with 
his wives urged him to go to Mukasa, the 
wizard of the great spirit, who they were 
confident could heal him. Upon his insist- 
ing that he could not leave the capital, they 
persuaded him to allow Mukasa to come to 
him. 

At last the wizard came, and his camp was 
115 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



set up a mile and a half southwest of the 
missionaries' headquarters. Every day 
could be heard the roll of drums beaten in 
his honor, and men carrying dozens of loads 
of plantains from the king to the wizard's 
camp passed by the missionaries' house. 
Cattle, chickens, and even servants were sent 
as presents to him. He would heal the king 
by a single word, every one was saying. 
It would be some days, however, before he 
would make his way to the palace; for he 
must wait for the coming of the new moon 
to begin his work. 

These days of waiting seemed to the mis- 
sionaries most critical days. Should king 
Mutesa receive this heathen wizard at his 
court, he would be announcing to all his sub- 
jects that he had wholly rejected the white 
man's religion and was again as much a 
heathen as ever in the past. To think that 
perhaps their two years' w r ork would end in 
such a failure, was sorely disappointing. 
If ever they prayed earnestly they did now. 
Every opportunity that arose, they were de- 
116 



KING AND WIZARD 



tcrmincd to use in trying to persuade King 
Mutesa to refuse to see this heathen sor- 
cerer. 

The morning of Thursday, December the 
eleventh, brought a day long remembered 
among the court folk and the missionaries. 
Baraza had already commenced when Mr. 
Mackay arrived. After various subjects 
had been discussed, and seeing that Mutesa 
was in good spirits, Mr. Mackay stepped for- 
ward and sat down on a stool before the 
king. 

"May I have permission to ask one ques- 
tion of the king?" he said. 

Mutesa replied, "Say on." 

"What is a wizard?" he asked. 

The question was a surprise to every one. 
Some were offended, because they believed in 
the power of the wizard; others smiled, be- 
cause they thought that the people were be- 
lieving foolishness. Mutesa seemed to take 
the question kindly, and began to explain 
what wizards were, that in them lived the 
spirits .of the gods. He also said that the 
117 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



remains of his dead ancestors were guarded 
by persons who were believed to be able to 
talk with the departed spirits, and that at 
times the spirits of the dead kings entered 
into them. 

Mr. Mackay told him that there were no 
living men who could talk with the spirits 
of the dead and that those who claimed they 
could do so told falsehoods, that there were 
many men of that sort in Uganda, but the 
chief of them all was the wizard Mukasa. 

"I believe you have little confidence in the 
powers of such pretenders," he continued, 
"but I have heard that several of your chiefs 
have been advising you to go to the wizard 
to be cured. I sit before you, your servant 
and the servant of Almighty God, and in 
his name I beg of you have no dealings with 
this wizard, whether a chief tries to per- 
suade you to do so, or a common man ad- 
vises you." The king did not seem to op- 
pose him, and translated his words to the 
court. 

Mr. Mackay continued: "If this Mukasa 
118 



KING AND WIZARD 



is a wizard, then he is a god, and thus there 
are two gods in Uganda the Lord God Al- 
mighty and Mukasa ; but if Mukasa is only 
a man, as many say he is, then there are 
two kings in Uganda Mutesa, whom we all 
acknowledge and honor, and this Mukasa, 
who gives himself out as some great one." 

Mutesa seemed to see the point and again 
translated Mackay 's words to the court. 
He told him that he was intending to hold 
a council of his chiefs with a view to com- 
ing to some decision in the matter. Mr. 
Mackay urged that there was no need of 
that; for, if the king himself believed the 
wizard to be an enemy of God, it would not 
be difficult for him to lead his chiefs to see 
how absurd the wizard's claims were. 

Then Mutesa opened a discussion with his 
chiefs on "What is a wizard $" He ended 
the talk by saying, "If the wizard is a man, 
he is not a wizard ; for a wizard is a spirit or 
god." 

One of Mr. Mackay 's letters gives the rest 
pf the story of that day at court: "I said 
119 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



that this Mukasa was practically causing re- 
bellion in the country, for he disobeyed Mu- 
tesa 's orders, and asserted his right over the 
Lake as before that of the king. It was 
more than five months since Mutesa had or- 
dered his Arab traders to be supplied with 
boats to go to Usukuina, [district of Kagei] 
yet those traders were not able to start be- 
cause of Mukasa 's counter-orders. This 
was a state of things that should not be al- 
lowed to exist. In the Book of God I was 
prepared to show him that both in the Old 
and New Testaments all sorcerers were de- 
nounced as liars, and were ranked in the 
lowest scale of iniquity. Moses commanded 
them to be put to death. In our own coun- 
try, in times past, they were put to the stake. 
But we did not as Christians sanction so se- 
vere a measure, nor did we come here to ad- 
vise the shedding of blood ; but still, on look- 
ing at the express command of God as stated 
in his Book, we did advise that every man 
who deceived people into believing that he 
was possessed of a spirit should be ordered 
120 



KING AND WIZARD 



to cease such deception, and if he chose to 
continue it, he should be sent to prison. 
These men were great liars, and Mukasa, as 
the head wizard, was the greatest liar, and 
the greatest rebel in the country. 

"Mutesa seemed rather delighted at the 
decidedness with which I spoke, and trans- 
lated everything, even recurring to the other 
way I put it : 'If Mukasa is a god, we have 
two gods ; if he is a man, then there are two 
kings here.' Those who were at first in- 
clined to defend the evil genius had at length 
nothing to say for him. Mutesa 's prime 
minister mentioned that Lukonge called 
himself god of the south end of the lake. 
One of the Arabs recommended waiting a 
couple of days to see what Mukasa had to 
say for himself. 'What was to be done?' 
was the question." 

" 'Lukonge is a heathen,' I said, 'and 
knows not God.' 

" 'But I know God,' Mutesa responded. 

"Yes, it is because you know God, and I 
believe wish to serve him, that I now ask 
121 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



you to choose one or the other, and not to 
honor an enemy of God. In all history we 
read that God was with every king that 
feared him, while those who went astray 
after other gods came to an end of shame. 
God has said, 'Them that honor me I will 
honor; and they that despise me shall be 
lightly esteemed.' ' 

Some loads of plantains and other dona- 
tions were at this moment presented, and 
other disturbances arising, Mutesa told 
Mackay that the subject would have to be 
dropped for the time, but he would attend 
to what Mackay had said. Thanking the 
king, the white man retired to his seat. 

When court was dismissed, the mission- 
ary received many a friendly hand-shake 
from the chiefs. Some of them, who, he 
supposed, were the strongest advocates of 
the wizard, greeted him in a friendly way, 
although some of them gave him the curi- 
ous look of those who felt they had been de- 
feated. 

Another opportunity came the next Sab- 
122 



KING AND WIZARD 



bath. "The day was very fine," Mr. Mac- 
kay wrote, "and many were present at ser- 
vice. After prayers, instead of our usual 
reading in St. Luke, I turned over the 
Scriptures from Exodus to Revelation, read- 
ing a host of passages to show the mind of 
God toward dealers in witchcraft. The 
laws of God to Moses, the examples of Saul 
and of Ahaziah, the manifestation of our 
Lord to destroy the works of the devil, the 
Acts of the Apostles especially the case of 
Elymas the works of the flesh contrasted 
with the fruit of the Spirit in Galatians, 
fifth chapter, and, finally, the list of those 
who may not enter through the gates of the 
heavenly city (Revelation xxii. 15). All 
these I read, in order, having previously 
written out the passages. 

"I had wonderful attention to-day much 
more than usual. I w r as gratified to hear 
one of the chiefs say that the list of pass- 
ages read was enough to set the matter at 
rest, and there could be no more dispute as 
to the unlawf ulness of witchcraft. ' ' 
123 



WHITE MAN OP WORK 



It was but a few nights till the new moon 
would appear. The following Saturday, 
however, brought disappointing news. Mr. 
Mackay heard from one of his pupils that all 
the chiefs had supplied men to build three 
small huts for Mukasa and his companions 
in the king's inner court, and that they had 
worked late by moonlight in order to have 
them finished by Monday morning when the 
wizard was to arrive. 

There was still a little more delay, how- 
ever, and Mukasa did not arrive as soon as 
was expected. Mackay was given another 
opportunity to speak to the king Monday 
morning. A few minutes after all were 
seated for the ~baraza, Mr. Mackay arose and 
sat down in front of the king, squatting 
like a tailor on the floor, as all the chiefs and 
Arabs did. 

Mutesa seemed to know what Mackay 
wanted to talk about, and he gave orders for 
all music and other noises outside the court 
to cease at once. 

1 'Is it your pleasure, King Mutesa," 
124 



KING AND WIZARD 



Mackay began, "that I should cease teach- 
ing the Word of God at court on Sundays?" 

"No, not by any means." 

"You and your chiefs," continued Mac- 
kay, "have now made up your minds to 
bring the wizard to stay at court. The 
other day your majesty admitted that he 
was a deceiver. I have no right to inter- 
fere with your orders or whom you choose 
as your guest; only this visitor, for whom 
preparations are made, is no ordinary guest, 
but is looked up to by the people as pos- 
sessed of powers which belong to God alone ; 
,We cannot mix. up the worship of God Al- 
mighty with the worship of a man who is 
the enemy of God." 

Mutesa listened intently, and then said to 
his chiefs, "Do you hear what Mackay 
says? He says that we cannot bring the 
wizard here without offending God." 

"The wizard is only coming with medicine 
to heal the king," one of the chiefs an- 
swered. 

Mackay replied, "The wizard is not 
125 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



merely a doctor, but is looked up to by all 
as a god, and as being able to heal people 
by enchantment." 

"The white man is right," admitted the 
king. "I know very well that this Mukasa 
is coming to use witchcraft." 

"We should only be delighted if Mukasa 
could cure the king," continued Mackay, 
"and neither I nor any other missionary 
would object to his bringing medicine for 
that purpose." 

"Gabunga [the head chief on the lake] 
came some time ago to say that Mukasa was 
able to cure me," said the king. " 'Bring his 
medicine, then,' I said. Gabunga brought 
some; but said it was of no use unless the 
wizard were present himself to perform the 
cure. This and that other fellow says that 
he is a wizard and that the spirit of my 
ancestors has gone into him; but do you 
think I believe that?" 

"I believe Mutesa has more sense than to 
believe anything of the kind," said Mackay, 
"for when a man dies, his soul returns to 
126 



KING AND WIZARD 



God, so that these fellows are only liars, and 
deceive the people.' 7 

The king replied, "What you say, Mac- 
kay, is perfectly true, and I know that all 
witchcraft is falsehood." 

Mackay thanked Mutesa for this state- 
ment, but the prime minister and other 
chiefs did not seem pleased. They saw no 
harm in the wizard being received with all 
honor. He would make medicine which 
they would hang up in the palace-houses, 
as Mukasa was a great medicine-man. 

"Medicine is an excellent thing," repeated 
Mackay, "but it is not medicine that has 
given Mukasa so great a name. This is not 
the reason why he is regarded as a wizard, 
but he wishes the people to believe him a 
god." 

Again the king seemed to agree with all 
Mr. Mackay had said. Much discussion fol- 
lowed. Sometimes the chiefs seemed to side 
with the white man, but usually they were 
opposed to him. Again Mackay pleaded 
with Mutesa, saying: 
127 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



"I cannot hinder the king from having 
the wizard as many days at court as he likes, 
only I find it my duty to tell him that his en- 
couraging this false person will have a pow- 
erful effect in the country in making the peo- 
ple believe more strongly than ever in 
witches and wizards, while King Mutesa 
himself does not believe in them. I take 
my stand on the Word of God, which says 
that all who use witchcraft are enemies of 
God." 

Poor Mutesa knew not what to do. His 
mother and his friends had persuaded him 
to have the wizard brought to his capital. 
He acknowledged that it would be wrong 
to receive him ; yet he was afraid not to do 
as his mother and his chiefs wished. 

"We are all ready to honor and respect 
your mother and your relatives," again 
Mackay urged, "but God is greater than 
them all, and you must choose which you 
will serve, God, or your relatives. ' ' Baraza 
was soon dismissed. 

Mackay 's last opportunity to plead at 
128 



KING AND WIZARD 



court came two days before Christmas. 
When all were seated, Mr. Mackay was 
called forward, and a woman was brought 
in. 

Mutesa said to Mackay, "This woman, my 
aunt, has been sent to bring you to the coun- 
cil of my mother, and others of the family, 
that you may explain to them why you re- 
fuse to allow me to see the wizard. " 

"I will not go to explain at any other 
court than this," Mackay replied. "I do 
not refuse to allow your majesty to see the 
wizard: only as a servant of God I warn 
you of the sin of witchcraft. I use no force, 
but, as I told your majesty yesterday, it was 
my place to tell you the truth, while you are 
free to follow or reject my advice." 

All the chiefs began to talk at once, and 
the king grew afraid not to act as they 
wished. 

Mutesa then said, "Now we will leave 
both the Arab's religion and the Bazungu's 
[white men's] religion, and will go back to 
the religion of our fathers." 
129 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Of course the chiefs were delighted, for 
they boldly "nyanzigged" [bowed] when he 
finished speaking, clapping their hands, say- 
ing " I thank you!" 

Mr. Mackay was asked why the mission- 
aries had come to Uganda, and what they 
came to do. "We came," Mackay an- 
swered, "in response to the king's own re- 
quest to Stanley, that he wished white men 
to come and stop with him, and to teach his 
people the knowledge of God." 

"I understood that you came to teach us 
how to make powder and guns, and what I 
want is men who will do so," said the king, 
in a show of anger. 

"We did not understand that. Our first 
work is to teach the Word of God, and how 
to read it." 

"If to teach that is your main object, then 
you are not to teach any more. I want you 
to work forme." 

Mackay replied, "We never have refused 
to do any work you have wished us to do; 
and everything the king has asked to be 
130 



KING AND WIZARD 



done, I have done. There is scarcely a chief 
present for whom I have not done work." 

He showed his hands, black with daily 
working in iron for those very chiefs who 
were saying the white men would not work 
for them. 

"We want you to stop teaching to read, 
and to do work only for us and the king," 
shouted the chiefs. 

"We came for no such purpose," replied 
the missionary. "If you wish that, then we 
cannot stay." 

"Where will you go?" 

"We shall go back to England." 

Several hours were spent in such talk, and 
the court was again dismissed. 

At last the time of the new moon had 
come and the following day was the wiz- 
ard's great day of triumph. The mission- 
aries did not go to the palace themselves; 
but, through a few of the more friendly na- 
tives, they learned what had happened. It 
was reported that four or five of the head 
chiefs had gone to the king and told him that 
131 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



if he did not receive the wizard and have the 
old religion back, they would take his throne 
from him and make one of his sons king. 

Mr. Mackay writes: "Before dawn I was 
awakened by a terrible beating of drums in 
the neighborhood. I got up, and looked out 
in a dense fog. I gathered at once that it 
was the procession of the wizard going to 
the palace. 

"The sound of drums got nearer, and the 
united shrill cries of hundreds of women 
became more distinct, and then faded away 
as the great procession turned up the high- 
way to the king's palace. I felt relieved 
that the party did not have to pass our 
house, for who knows what a capricious and 
fanatical mob might have done on a mo- 
ment's impulse? But I retired into my 
room with the feeling that we were in the 
hands of our loving Father, who will not 
allow a hair of our heads to perish. 

"I afterward learned that the wizard put 
up at the house of Gabunga [head chief on 
the lake], who is now at the capital, till 
132 



KING AND WIZARD 



midday, when he was received at the pal- 
ace. The king was removed from his ordin- 
ary house, and seated in the main court, 
where the three huts were built for the wiz- 
ard and his two companions. By some re- 
ports, Mutesa and his wives alone were in- 
side the house, the katikiro sitting in the 
doorway, and all the other chiefs sitting out- 
side, while the wizard also sat outside near 
the door, his companions sitting near him. 

"All agree in saying that a vast quantity 
of beer was consumed by the wizard and 
chiefs, Mutesa scarcely touching the liquor ; 
that the king sat silent all the time, while 
the wizard sang. Some say that Mutesa 
paid little attention to the wizard, but called 
forward the small sorcerers to play and 
dance before him. Few were near enough 
to know anything that the wizard said or 
sung; but one man says that he predicted 
war in the country from the presence of 
strangers, not now, perhaps, but within four 
or five years." 

For several days the great wizard and his 
133 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



companions presented themselves at court, 
going through their chanting, dancing, and 
drinking as on the first day. Finally, the 
last day of the year, Mutesa refused to see 
the wizard again because the cure which was 
expected had failed. Mukasa was obliged 
to leave and return to his island home. 

So the year ended. King Mutesa had 
yielded to the persuasions of his chiefs and 
relatives and had returned to his old heathen 
ways only to be disappointed again by the 
false pretensions of the heathen wizard. 
What might next be expected no one dared 
to predict. 



134 



CHAPTER VII 

THE TWO-FACED MUTESA AND THE MOHAM- 
MEDANS 

KING Mutesa had openly rejected both 
the religion of the white men and that 
of the Arabs, and declared himself again a 
worshiper of the heathen spirits. For him, 
however, it was as easy to change his reli- 
gion as to change his clothes. Not more 
than two weeks after he had compelled his 
court to do reverence to the wizard, he said 
to his chiefs : 

"Why are you not continuing to learn to 
read? You are all trying to gather riches 
for this world. You had better prepare for 
the world to come. Here are white men 
who have come far from Europe to teach you 
religion. Why do you not learn ?" 

He even went so far as to distribute many 
135 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



reading sheets among Ms chiefs and pages. 
As a result, some who because of fear had 
ceased going to the missionaries' home, now 
renewed their visits, and others were made 
bold to begin to study for the first time. 

Yet during the months which followed the 
wizard's visit, the missionaries were very 
much neglected by Mutesa. He no longer 
sent them presents of bananas, goats, and 
chickens, and their supply of cowry-shells 
for buying food became exhausted. Most 
of their clothes were either badly worn or 
had been pawned for food. They needed 
also oil for their lamps, paper for printing, 
and many other things not to be had in 
Uganda. 

So in April, 1880, Mr. Mackay started on 
a journey to Uyui, several hundred miles 
south of the lake where were other English 
missionaries who had lately come from Eng- 
land with fresh supplies. Some thirty 
days, Mr. Mackay and his companions spent 
in "frail, tiny barks, made of rough hewn 
boards, sewed together with twigs," and an- 
136 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

other month was occupied in traveling over- 
land to Uyui. During the time Mr. Mac- 
kay spent merely in going to Uyui, their 
nearest supply house, perhaps five hundred 
miles from Uganda, one could now make the 
trip from New York City to Shanghai, 
China, and return. This trip kept Mr. 
Mackay away from the capital for nine 
months, Mr. Pearson being the only Protest- 
ant missionary left in Uganda. 

About three months after Mr. Mackay 
had left the capital, the fickle Mutesa again 
changed his religion. One night he dreamed 
that he saw ten moons and an eleventh 
which was both larger and brighter than any 
of the others. The big bright moon waxed 
more and more brilliant and grew larger 
and larger until the ten other moons came 
and bowed down before it. While Mutesa 
was wondering what the dream meant, he 
thought he saw two angels standing before 
him and he was frightened by their angry 
looks. 

have you and your court ceased to 
137 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



pray the Mohammedan prayers ?" one of the 
angels asked. 

Now all Mohammedans are taught to pray 
five times a day. In order that every one 
may know just the time when the prayers 
should be said, a priest from the top of some 
high building calls loudly Arabic words, 
which mean "God is great. I bear witness 
that there is no god but God! I bear wit- 
ness that Mohammed is the Prophet of God ! 
Come to prayers ! Come to prayers ! Come 
to salvation! There is no other god but 
God!" Immediately, every good Moham- 
medan, no matter where he is or what his 
task, believes that his first duty is to wash 
his hands and kneel down to pray. 

So the angel said to Mutesa: "If you 
wish to be prosperous and your land to 
grow, return at once to this old custom and 
call the people to prayer as the Koran com- 
mands." 

On telling the dream to his wives, Mutesa 
was easily persuaded to think that he was 
like the large moon and that soon ten king- 
138 




COME TO PRAYERS! COME TO SALVATION! " 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

doms would come to him and beg him to 
rule over them. 

On meeting his chiefs at morning baraza, 
the proud king repeated his dream to them 
also. Then and there, he commanded them 
all to obey the order of the angels and to 
pray, " La-ilaha-illa- Allah, Muhammedun 
Easul Allah" one of the creeds which 
Mohammedans are taught and which they 
repeat again and again. The Arabic words 
when translated mean, * * There is no god but 
God; and Mohammed is the Prophet of 
God." 

Mutesa's command needed merely to be 
given and the royal palace resounded with 
the prayers of scores of men who were ready 
to follow any religion their king might 
choose. 

Mutesa announced that he himself was no 
longer a worshiper of the gods of Uganda or 
a follower of Isa [Jesus], but, from hence- 
forth, his religion was that of Mohammed. 
In the church, within the royal enclosure 
where only a short while before men had 
139 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



prayed to the Lord Jesus, now each day Mo- 
hammedan prayers were chanted. Every 
chief, wherever he might go, was accom- 
panied by a boy carrying a mat and a ket- 
tle, so that when the call to prayer was 
heard, he might wash his hands and kne^l on 
the mat in obedience to the Koran. 

Some days after the public announcement 
of his new religion, Mutesa declared that 
since he had determined to follow the dream, 
he had been cured of his long-standing sick- 
ness. For some time he held baraza regu- 
larly in the grand style which had been hab- 
itual years before, but which was set aside 
after he began to suffer from his lingering 
disease. Soon, however, the malady proved 
as serious as before. 

During this period when the Mohamme- 
dans enjoyed the royal favor, the Arabs 
gloried alike in their own power and in the 
seeming defeat of their enemies, the white 
men. 

On Mr. Mackay's return from the south- 
ern end of the lake, they were ready to tell 
140 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

the king the most unthinkable series of 
falsehoods about the missionary. These 
they hoped would further prejudice his 
mind against Mackay and cause Mutesa 
either to drive the white teacher from the 
country or to take his life. 

At ~baraza one morning, when one Catho- 
lic priest and two Arabs were present, the 
crafty Mutesa, always eager to start excit- 
ing discussions at court, said: "Makay mi- 
loilu," ("Mackay is mad") . Having waited 
for just such an opportunity, the Arabs now 
boldly presented their charges. 

They said that Mackay was a criminal of 
the worst sort; that he had fled from Eng- 
land because he had there murdered two 
men; that when he boarded the steamer 
bound for Africa, he carried two revolvers 
in his hands, with which he threatened to 
shoot the captain on the spot if he refused 
to take him to Zanzibar; that, from Zanzi- 
bar in turn, he was compelled to flee because 
of more murders he committed there; that 
in Unyanyembe he had walked about carry- 
141 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



ing two revolvers hoping for an opportunity 
to kill the governor; that it was very dan- 
gerous to allow him to remain in Uganda, 
for he was insane and only tried to murder 
people. They further declared that Mac- 
kay, being very much afraid that the story 
of his crimes would reach Mutesa's ears, 
had, on that very morning, given the speaker 
a present and on his knees had besought him 
not to make public the facts about his 
wicked life. 

When the story of that morning's laraza 
was told Mr. Mackay, what were his 
thoughts? In his journal that night, these 
were some of the words he wrote : 

"God is over all, and he is our God and 
our sole defense. In fever, when one's 
nerves are weak, many doubts arise in the 
mind, and through morbidly dwelling on the 
number of our bloodthirsty enemies, faith 
almost fails. Yet the fever subsides, and 
courage rises with better health, and one 
cannot but feel a deep inward, peaceful con- 
sciousness that, though we are absolutely 
142 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

shut off from every human help, yet we 
have protection more secure than any con- 
sul can afford, even the omnipotent arm of 
Jehovah. 

"For the terrible charges laid against me, 
some proposed in court that I should be put 
to death. Even the charge of carrying my 
revolver is false, for I almost invariably 
march unarmed, having only my umbrella. 
Mutesa, however, said that the best thing to 
do was to send me home, as being a raiser of 
much noise and row in court. He knows 
very well that this charge, too, is unfounded. 
One of the French missionaries compli- 
mented me on the quiet manner in which I 
talked with Mutesa, while Arabs and others 
spoke loudly and excitedly. 

"We now can understand to the full the 
meaning of that blessing which we are 
promised when men shall revile us, and per- 
secute us, and shall say all manner of evil 
against us falsely for His sake. We are 
His, and it matters not what man can do 
to us." 

143 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



The Arabs long continued to slander the 
missionaries in this way whenever it was 
possible to do so. They took advantage of 
the occasions when the missionaries were 
not at court to make false charges against 
them before the king. 

One morning when a goodly number of 
them were present at baraza, they said, 
"The English are taking advantage of Mu- 
tesa's illness. Since you are unable to go 
about to see what is going on in your king- 
dom, the English are building a castle of 
clay which will become a fort ; and they have 
many guns. When they finish building they 
will fight." 

Mutesa answered: "The English are at 
Zanzibar and have not yet taken that place. 
Is it likely that they will begin fighting here 
when they have not yet * eaten' any part of 
the coast?" 

Failing in their charge against the Eng- 
lish, the Arabs next attacked the French- 
men. "Mapera has many guns," they said, 
"and has bought fifty slaves and is training 
144 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

them to fight. Then they will make war." 

Mutesa did not seem inclined to believe 
this charge either, and said that he knew 
that Mapera was not a fighting man. "I 
accept your religion," he said, "and do not 
want the religion of the Bazungu [white 
men]. Leave off. then abusing them." 

Pleased that he had professed to accept 
their faith, the Arabs began to flatter him 
because of his wisdom. 

"The Bazungu," they said, "do not know 
how to pray. They never wash their hands 
before eating. They keep dogs which are 
unclean animals. Their skin is white be- 
cause they eat swine's flesh. We eat only 
clean animals, we always wash before eating 
and before praying, and we pray regularly 
four and five times a day." 

Mutesa again praised the Mohammedan 
religion and commanded all his chiefs to go 
immediately and pray at the mosque which 
had been put up on the palace grounds. 

When they returned Mutesa asked: 
"Have not the Bazungu a book also from 
145 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



which they pray? Is there no one present 
who can repeat their prayers for me to 
hear!" 

Mufta being present was asked to read. 
He read the prayer beginning, "Our 
Father which art in heaven. " 

"There," cried the Arabs, "what is 
that? Allah is not our Father, and who- 
ever saw him in heaven? Did we not tell 
you that these people do not know how to 
pray?" 

The king then decreed that all should 
pray as the Arabs did, and that every one 
who was found not doing so should be 
caught and killed. 

Later another discussion arose at court 
about the religions of Christ and Moham- 
med. Mr. O 'Flaherty, who had taken Mr. 
Pearson's place in the mission, took the side 
of the Christians. 

"In what does the wealth of Europe and 
Zanzibar consist?" asked Mutesa of one of 
the Arabs present. 

The Arab mentioned houses, lands, cattle, 
146 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

slaves, ivory, merchandise, pearls, gold, and 
silver. 

"In what does the wealth of Uganda con- 
sist?" asked Mr. O 'Flaherty of the king. 

"Our riches," said Mutesa, "lie in ivory 
and women and cattle and slaves and 
houses." 

Mr. O 'Flaherty replied, "Ivory will by- 
and-by be all gone; your women die every 
day of the plague ; your cattle get eaten up ; 
your slaves die; and your houses, why I 
could set them all on fire with one match. 
iWhat will you have then ? All these things 
perish. I, therefore, advise you to seek the 
true riches which are above, and which can- 
not pass away. Seek first to know God and 
to love him with all your heart, and then 
you will have wealth which will last al- 
ways." 

"I want to have nothing to do with Jesus 
Christ," Mutesa replied. "I want goods 
and women. The religion of Jesus Christ 
will not give these to me, so I will not have 
it. The white men told me that God would 
141 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



protect those who read the Book. Smissi 
[Lieutenant Smith] was a man who read 
the book of Jesus Christ and he was killed. 
Does not Jesus Christ always abuse people ? 
Did he not try to make the Jews accept his 
religion ? But they would not have it, and 
killed him and scattered his followers. I 
don't want the Bazungu to come here with 
empty words. I want them to work and to 
bring me goods like the Arabs. If they will 
not make me ships and cannon, I do not 
want them. They tell me about God. 
Who ever saw God ? Ask the Bazungu who 
ever saw God." 

In answer, Mr. O 'Flaherty asked Mutesa, 
"Did you ever see pain ? Yet you have cer- 
tainly felt it and know what it is. Did you 
ever see the wind? Yet you know it is 
here or there." 

So the conversation continued. Mutesa 's 
heart was bad and the missionaries were 
able to do little. 

A few days later the Arabs invented 
another very cunning charge against the 
148 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

English missionaries. Several of them, 
having called on the white men, had seen 
and heard their new music-box. So at 
court they told the king that Queen Vic- 
toria had sent him a fine music-box, but that 
the missionaries were keeping it for them- 
selves. They further said that there were 
devils inside the box and when Mr. O 'Flah- 
erty whistled the devils began to play and 
when Mr. O 'Flaherty said "stop," they 
were quiet. They also said that the Queen 
had sent Mutesa a thousand rifles, which 
they were also keeping for their own use. 
A hundred bales of cloth and many other 
things the Arabs said the missionaries were 
withholding from Mutesa. Of course, it 
was soon shown how false were all these 
charges. 

After a long discussion about Jesus 
Christ, the Arabs broke out with a new at- 
tack. "The Basungu are idolaters, they 
worship pictures." 

Mutesa ordered a book brought which 
had been given him by the French Catholic 
149 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



priests. It contained a picture of God, the 
Father, as an old man with a long beard. 
The Arabs were delighted to have their 
charge seemingly proved true. 

But the missionary was ready with a re- 
ply. ' * That is not really a picture of God, ' ' 
he said. "That picture has been made to 
help children to understand that God is our 
Father. But, you know that the French- 
men and we do not agree on such things: 
we have the same faith in important mat- 
ters, but pictures we don't believe in as 
they do." 

The evil stories invented by the Arabs 
were sometimes so bad that they sound ri- 
diculous. Mr. Mackay seemed to be more 
fiercely slandered than any of the rest. 
The Arabs even made up this very queer 
fable, which they tried to use to Mr. 
Mackay 's harm: 

"A certain king," they said, "had a fav- 
orite cat, which was reported to have one 
day eaten all the eggs. The king, however, 
said, 'It is my cat, let it alone; it must eat/ 
150 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

Next day it was reported to have eaten the 
hens. 'Let it alone,' said the king, 'it is 
my favorite cat ; it must eat. ' After this it 
ate the goats, and then all the cows; but 
still the king would not let the cat be 
touched. Next it ate up all the people, and 
the king's wives, and then his children, and 
finally it ate up the king himself. Only one 
son of the king escaped by hiding himself. 
Meantime the cat grew and swelled to a 
great size, from having devoured so many 
things. 

"But at length the one prince who es- 
caped, succeeded in killing the cat. When 
he cut it open, he found all the eggs and 
the fowls and the goats and the cows and 
the people and the wives and the king's 
sons. But in the act of cutting the cat up, 
the prince accidentally wounded in the thigh 
one of his brother princes inside the cat. 
This fellow got out and said, 'What did you 
wound me for?' 'Do you not see,' said the 
other, 'that I have been doing you a good 
service in letting you out ? ' But he refused 
151 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



to be at peacej and tried to kill the prince 
who had let him out!" 

"The wonderful cat is the English," said 
the Arabs, "and the wounded prince who 
wished to kill his deliverer is Mackay. 
You, Mutesa, have conferred every benefit 
on hiniy but he means only to return you 
evil for good!" 

"Could enmity and falsehood go fur- 
ther ? ' ' wrote Mackay in his j ournal. "But 
none of these things move me. The Lord 
has preserved me many a time from the 
hatred of these revilers and wicked men, 
who, for no reason at all, delight so to speak 
all manner of evil against me falsely. It 
was this very morning that Pearson and I 
read together at prayers the fifty-first chap- 
ter of Isaiah : 

" 'I, even, I, am he that comforteth you: 
who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid 
of a man that shall die, and of the son of 
man which shall be made as grass ; and f or- 
gettest the Lord thy maker, that hath 
stretched forth the heavens, and laid the 
152 



MUTESA AND MOHAMMEDANS 

foundations of the earth; and hast feared 
continually every day because of the fury of 
the oppressor, as if he were ready to de- 
stroy? and where is the fury of the op- 
pressor? The captive exile hasteneth that 
he may be loosed, and that he should not die 
in the pit, nor that his bread should fail. 
But I am the Lord thy God, that divided the 
sea, whose waves roared : the Lord of hosts 
is his name. And I have put my words in 
thy mouth, and I have covered thee in the 
shadow of mine hand. ' 

"With such a promise, and such a ref- 
uge, and such a God, who shall be afraid? 
Lord God, give us more faith in thee ! As 
for these Mohammedans and all others who 
speak so falsely of us, we would have no 
bitter feelings in our hearts against them. 
Lord, have mercy on them, and lead them to 
know thee, and then they will love thee and 
love thy servants." 

Such a one, whose desire was best ex- 
pressed in a prayer for his enemies, was a 
true Christian, for he was like his Master. 
153 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

OCTOBER the eighth, eighteen hundred 
and eighty-one, was a great day for 
the two English missionaries in Uganda. 
Mr. Litchfield and Mr. Pearson, having been 
compelled to return to their homeland, Mr. 
Mackay and Mr. O 'Flaherty were at the 
time alone in the mission. The day brought 
nothing unusual but a letter addressed to 
Mr. Mackay. 

The letter was short very short as it 
contained but two sentences. It was not 
beautifully written, for the writer had never 
had a lesson in penmanship. The pen used 
was a pointed piece of spear grass and the 
ink had been made from pot soot and plan- 
tain juice. None of us could have read it, 
for it was written in Luganda, yet it 
154 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

brought Mr. Mackay the best news he had 
heard since reaching Uganda. During all 
the three years he had spent in Mutesa's 
kingdom, not a single black man or woman 
in the country, as far as he knew, had 
showed that he truly wanted to be a Chris- 
tian. This little letter bringing the good 
news was from one of Mackay 's first pupils, 
a young man named Sembera. 

"Bwana [Master] Mackay," it read, 
1 'Sembera has come with compliments and 
to give you the great news. Will you bap- 
tize him, because he believes the words of 
Jesus Christ?" 

Never afterwards was Sembera ashamed 
of being a Christian. Day by day, he lived 
the sort of life which convinced every one 
that he was "true blue." Although only a 
slave boy, he was ever trying to persuade 
others to become Christians. Two years 
after his baptism two young men whom he 
himself had won boldly acknowledged Jesus 
as Lord and Saviour; and even his old 
slave master became a Christian later, be- 
155 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



cause Sembera his slave boy had taught him 
of Jesus. 

About a month after Sembera 's note came, 
another bit of important news reached the 
missionaries. A lame slave boy, named Dum- 
ulira, one of Mr. O 'Flaherty's advanced 
pupils, was missed for some time from the 
daily reading class, and the missionaries did 
not know what the trouble could be. Later, 
when Mr. O 'Flaherty was waiting in one of 
the courtyards of the palace, a lad stepped 
up and handed to him a Gospel, saying that 
Dumulira had asked that it be returned to 
the white man. His friend Dumulira, he 
said, was dead. He himself used to be a 
follower of the wizards, but now he no 
longer believed his old superstitions. To 
prove that he was honest, he showed Mr. 
O 'Flaherty that he no longer carried any 
charm about his clothes. 

The change in the heathen lad had come 

about at a time when hundreds of Waganda 

were dying of the plague. While Dumulira 

was sick, he asked his heathen friend to go 

156 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

to the missionaries for medicine; but the 
heathen lad was afraid and would not go. 
All day long, the sick boy read from the 
Gospel of Mark, until his pains grew too in- 
tense to read longer, and soon afterward he 
died. 

That day the heathen lad lost his faith in 
the evil spirits worshiped by the Waganda. 
Soon he, too, was one of the "readers" at 
the missionaries' school and was taught 
more about the Christ who had made his 
friend's death-bed so sweet. 

About five months after Sembera's letter 
was received, the first five Christian Wa- 
ganda then living were baptized by Mr. 
O 'Flaherty. For this special service the 
missionaries' home was turned into a 
chapel. After the solemn and impressive 
ceremony of the morning was over, a boun- 
teous dinner was served to about thirty lads 
and men and a goodly number of women be- 
sides, Mr. Mackay being the chief cook for 
the occasion. It was a very happy as well 
as a solemn day; and others, too, began to 
157 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



think seriously of coming out boldly for 
Christ. 

The five young men who were baptized 
had all been pupils in the white men's 
school for a long time, and had repeatedly 
expressed their determination to be follow- 
ers of Jesus. To make every one feel that 
these young men were beginning a new life, 
they were given new names when baptized. 
Sembera was now called Sembera Mackay. 
Two of them had formerly been known by 
the name of the old wizard of the lake, Mu- 
kasa. One was now called Philipo for Mr. 
O 'Flaherty, who was called Philipo by the 
black men; and the other was named Ed- 
wardo. The fourth was called Henry 
^Wright, for one of the missionary secre- 
taries in England ; and the fifth was named 
Yakobo, meaning Jacob. 

From this time on, the number of those 
who were earnestly seeking to learn how to 
follow the white man's religion steadily in- 
creased. Some walked three, four, and five 
hours to reach the missionaries' home. 
158 




: THE CHIEF TEACHING His WIVES 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

One faithful chief was obliged to wade 
through a swamp up to his waist in going 
from his home to that of the missionaries. 

One day a chief came who said he had 
heard one morning at barasa the discus- 
sions between Mr. O 'Flaherty, the king, and 
the Arabs ; and he wanted now to hear more 
of what the white man had to say. Mr. 
O 'Flaherty gave the chief his evenings, 
teaching him to read the Lord's Prayer, the 
Creed, part of the New Testament, and cer- 
tain other Scripture verses. Occasionally 
he went to the chief's home to teach him. 
Calling one day at his hut, he was happily 
surprised to find the chief teaching his 
women or wives, some to say the alphabet, 
some to spell, and some to read the Lord's 
Prayer. 

One morning, the man who had been the 
special wizard or priest for this chief came 
also to the missionaries' home. Many regu- 
lar pupils and visitors, together with other 
wizards and worshipers of the spirits, were 
present. In the midst of the teaching, this 
159 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



priest arose and knelt at the feet of Mr. 
O 'Flaherty. 

"I will cast off these charms of the 
spirits, whom I will never again serve," he 
cried. "They are liars and cheats. I will 
follow Jesus and learn his ways." On say- 
ing this, he cut off the valuable charms he 
carried about his person and took off his 
priest's robes and threw them all into the 
fire. 

Soon after this the chief was ordered by 
the king to go to a distant part of the coun- 
try. Having been away some months, he 
sent his converted priest back to the mis- 
sion house, several days' journey, to ask for 
a prayer-book. It happened that when he 
arrived, another priest, richly robed and 
adorned with charms, was talking with Mr. 
Mackay. The heathen priest was describ- 
ing his different kinds of charms; one he 
had to keep off lightning; one was to heal 
snake bites; and others were to heal various 
kinds of sicknesses. Mr. Mackay finally 
persuaded the man to allow him for a few 
160 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

minutes to have one of his most precious 
charms which he carried on his head. On 
handing it over to the missionary the wiz- 
ard cautioned Mr. Mackay not to place it 
on his head lest some dreadful calamity 
should be sent upon him by the god. This 
was the very thing Mr. Mackay did, at the 
same time addressing the crowd of Wa- 
ganda. Expecting to see Mackay smitten 
dead on the spot, some of the people were so 
frightened that they ran away. The wizard 
himself seemed interested and convinced of 
the folly of his belief. 

Then the converted wizard stepping for- 
ward boldly addressed the people. He told 
them how he had thrown all his charms and 
his priestly robes into the fire; for he had 
been led to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Great High Priest of the true God. 
Those present were deeply moved, and 
many went away asking themselves, "Is 
not the Christian's .God the true God?" 

These interesting and encouraging things 
were happening while the Waganda every- 
161 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



where were living in constant fear of death. 
The land was sorely stricken with the 
plague, much as Egypt was in the days of 
Moses. When this was at its worst, it 
seemed as though there was not a single 
house in Uganda where at least one had not 
died. 

The disease snatched several from the 
noble Christian band. Two of these vic- 
tims, young men of the king's household, 
were expecting to be baptized in a few 
months. When smitten with the plague, 
however, they were treated as were all 
others and carried off into the jungle and 
left to die. Some friend, learning of this, 
wrote a note to Mr. O 'Flaherty, which 
read: "Hasten to such a place in Rubaga 
and bring with you some medicine, for your 
two friends are being carried away thither 
smitten with the plague." 

Mr. O 'Flaherty hastened to them, and 

found them alone in the deserted place ; for 

those who had borne them to the jungle 

were afraid of being seized with the dread 

162 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

disease. There were a few words of cheer 
and a short prayer by the missionary. "I 
shall never forget," wrote Mr. O 'Flaherty, 
"the look up to heaven by the first young 
man, Mukasa, and the words, among many 
others, to the effect that, although he was 
leaving an earthly palace, he was going to 
the palace in heaven; and turning to his 
friend he said, ' Jesus our Saviour is King.' 
His hands were clasped in mine, but in a 
paroxysm of burning agony he released his 
grasp and passed away. Turning to my 
other friend, I found him already in the 
throes of death, but I felt his name was en- 
tered on the Book of Life in heaven." 

Another victim of the plague was Philipo 
Mukasa, one of the first five baptized by the 
missionary. For a long time he had been 
Mr. O 'Flaherty's personal friend and 
helper. In the religious services he became 
the leader in the singing and in the respon- 
sive Bible reading, and in the school he was 
made one of the regular teachers. Once 
shortly after his baptism, he weakened 
163 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



under the tempting offer of his brother, a 
chief, who promised him a wife, the Afri- 
can's great desire, if Philipo Mukasa would 
only become his heathen priest. However, 
with his wife Sarah he soon returned to the 
missionaries, asking that both might be per- 
mitted to remain with them. 

At all other times Philipo was true to his 
God. Even before he was baptized he had 
suffered persecution for the Bazungu's 
[white men's] religion. It was when Mu- 
tesa, because of his dream, had turned his 
court into a Mohammedan assembly. At 
the time Philipo Mukasa was the janitor of 
the church within the palace enclosure where 
the chiefs began to go regularly to repeat 
Mohammedan prayers. Philipo Mukasa re- 
fused to join them, and said that the religion 
of Jesus which the white men taught was the 
only true religion. "When his words were 
reported to the king, the brave young man 
was put in the stocks ; and shortly after he 
with another of the missionaries ' pupils was 
sent off bound into the country. 
164 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

On another occasion, after Philipo 's re- 
tarn, Mr. O 'Flaherty was too ill to attend 
court. The missionaries were being slan- 
dered by their enemies who said that they 
were bribing people to get them to come to 
read, and that they were running away with 
the palace women. The king ordered every 
pupil found about the premises to be 
caught, when Philipo Mukasa came heroic- 
ally to their rescue. He pleaded the mis- 
sionaries' cause so ably at court that, in- 
stead of being murdered for his boldness as 
he expected, the king and katikiro each 
gave him a present of cloth. 

Philipo 's wife, Sarah, grew to be as noble 
a Christian as himself. When first brought 
to the missionaries' home, she was a 
haughty savage who refused to touch the 
white men's food. "Can a woman learn?" 
she asked, when they tried to teach her. 
Soon however she became a good reader and, 
more than that, a most helpful person about 
the place. One day she was seen working in 
the garden with the other women. 
165 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



"Sarah," asked the missionary, "who 
told you to work ; I thought you were above 
working?" 

"I cannot wash and sew like my white 
sisters in England," she answered. "I 
wish I could ; but I can prune and hoe, and 
the plantains which feed us require both. 
It is my duty to assist in feeding this great 
family." 

It was a sad night for her and all the 
Christians when Philipo Mukasa was smit- 
ten with the plague and died. His brothers 
came to take away the corpse, but the mis- 
sionary and Sarah refused, saying that be- 
cause they were Christians and Jesus was 
their elder brother, they were more closely 
related to Philipo Mukasa than his natural 
brothers. When his heathen relatives saw 
the fine grave the white men made and the 
beautiful bark cloth and the clean white 
linen in which they wrapped the dead body, 
they said: "You have buried him a chief; 
we also wish to be your brothers." 

During the larger part of the year 1883, 
166 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

Mr. Mackay was absent from Rubaga. He 
was trying to fit up a second vessel to take 
the place of the steam launch they had for- 
merly used on Victoria Lake. His heart, 
however, was very much in Uganda, and he 
greatly wished to see these young Chris- 
tians baptized and to help to train them for 
larger usefulness. 

One interesting young man, Mwira by 
name, who came while Mr. Mackay was 
away, asked permission to stay with the mis- 
sionaries. During the day, he worked for 
hours in the garden side by side with Mr. 
O 'Flaherty; and at night, he had scores of 
questions to ask as the missionary tried to 
teach him of Christ. On returning to his 
home he was given some Christian books. 
After several months' absence he returned 
with his wife and babe, asking that his wife, 
too, might be taught to read. She had been 
with the missionaries only a day or two 
when she went to Mr. O 'Flaherty to ask for 
a hoe that she might go and work in the 
garden and help to earn her own bread, 
167 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



The missionary objected, saying: "Stay 
and learn, you are my guest; I'll feed you." 

"How can I while you labor," she an- 
swered. "No, you stay with us, and teach 
us, and we will go and cultivate." 

Unlike most Waganda husbands and 
wives Mwira and his wife loved each other. 
When baptized they chose for themselves 
the names Yohana (John) and Maryamu 
(Mary), from the two Bible characters they 
especially respected. 

Before Mwira finally said good-by to the 
missionaries, he attempted to describe how 
he felt as a Christian man. This is about 
what he said. 

"I am like a man traveling in a moun- 
tainous country. He climbs and passes 
ridge after ridge with pleasure. But as he 
surmounts each he looks before him to the 
heights beyond, each one loftier than those 
he has passed, and he becomes impatient, 
and wonders to himself if he will ever sur- 
mount the last. But there is one great dif- 
ference. The traveler in his desire hastens 
168 



NEW TEACHING MAKES NEW MEN 

from the summit of one ridge to descend, 
that he may climb another height; thence 
he hastens on till he climbs the last and 
highest. Not so I. When I climb I like 
to lie on the top and rest, and enjoy the 
others before me. Yes, I like to rest, and 
drink of the fountains that gush forth as 
I climb. Oh, the pleasure of reading and 
thinking upon these delightful books, and 
of meditating on the wonders of the Son of 
God becoming man to save men from evil 
spirits!" 

So the number of Waganda Christians 
grew. Some were slaves, some were chiefs, 
some were officers of the king's household, 
and several were the king's own daughters. 
By October, 1884, eighty-eight Waganda 
had been baptized. Black men, women, 
and children were being born again with 
new hearts pure and white. 



169 



CHAPTER IX. 
MACKAY'S QUEER NEW NAME 

MR. MACKAY was not an ordained 
minister of the gospel, but a mechanic. 
His best sermons were preached by the 
things he made with his hands. His sun- 
burned face told of the hours spent out of 
doors as farmer, carpenter, or bridge- 
builder, and his hands were blackened and 
hardened by the heavy labor which was al- 
most continually his. Many a time he 
longed for more spare hours in which the 
bright lads who came to the mission might 
be taught to read the Bible. At nights and 
in the evenings when out-door work was im- 
possible, he would turn into schoolmaster, 
or printer, or, with the help of some Wa- 
ganda boys, he would make an attempt at 
translating parts of the Bible into Luganda. 
170 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



He wrote: "Any amount of mere 
preaching would never set these lazy fel- 
lows to work; and if only the slaves work, 
what better are matters than before? I 
have made work so prominent a part of my 
teaching that I am called Muswngu-wa Kazi 
[white man of work]. I tell them that God 
made men with only one stomach, but with 
two hands, implying they should work twice 
as much as they eat. But most of them are 
all stomach and no hands! That I work 
with my hands is a great marvel, and 
should be a healthful lesson." 

During the year 1881 there was more 
than the usual amount of work to keep the 
hands of Mr. O 'Flaherty and Mr. Mackay 
busy. Indeed the "white man of work" 
seldom could spare time to attend the royal 
"baraza. Mr. O 'Flaherty, being preacher, 
was the one who carried on the greater 
number of the discussions with the king and 
his chiefs at court. 

Just now a good sized farm of perhaps 
twenty acres was at the disposal of the 
171 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



missionaries ten times as much as the king 
had given them at first. To raise for them- 
selves all the vegetables, fruit, and stock 
they might need for food became their am- 
bition. Thus they would no longer be de- 
pendent upon the favor of a fickle king for 
gifts of food and for cowry-shells to keep 
them from starvation. 

It was no easy task to cut down the trees 
and underbrush and to break up the soil, so 
as to prepare these acres of wild land for 
cultivation. The natives never having been 
used to the idea of working for wages, all 
manual work being done by slaves, it was dif- 
ficult to get men and women to help in this 
undertaking. At first the blacks would only 
beg and steal from the white men, whether 
any work had been done or not. Finally, 
the white men succeeded in getting a few 
helpers to agree to finish a certain piece of 
work for definite wages. Some would work 
a week for the payment of a very small 
quantity of cloth. Women, who in Uganda 
do all the gardening, came to hoe and prune 
172 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



the plantain trees for a few cowry-shells, 
while half grown lads sometimes consented 
for pay to do this woman 's work. 

After months of patient labor, fifteen 
hundred plantain trees were growing on the 
land. Splendid crops of maize, millet, 
wheat, beans, peas, tomatoes, and sweet po- 
tatoes were being gathered. There was a 
fair herd of cattle, together with goats and 
chickens enough to supply them with 
meat. Part of the coffee they used was 
raised on their own trees, and the cotton 
they wove into cloth was of their own plant- 
ing. From their own wheat crops they 
made flour and baked bread in a brick oven 
devised by Mr. Mackay. Plantain rinds 
were burned to make lye for soap-making. 
They even went so far as to make sugar and 
molasses from Uganda sugar-cane. All 
these new forms of labor the missionaries 
did themselves or taught the natives by pa- 
tient example. 

To all the tasks of various kinds involved 
in farming was added that of building a 
173 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



new home for the missionaries. Hitherto 
they had lived in a hut of native build. 
Oftentimes the rain would drip through the 
grass roof, and on the moist mud floors 
weeds and grass would insist on growing. 
The lower parts of the walls, being shaded 
by the roof and soaked by the rains, soon 
rotted. Because such conditions were so 
unhealthful, Mr. Mackay determined to 
build the best sort of house he could with the 
materials at his disposal. 

Because of the rumors spread by the 
Arabs that brick houses would be used as 
forts, he did not dare build of that material. 
So the frame he made of wild palm, the only 
wood in Uganda which can resist the rav- 
ages of the white ants. Between the beams, 
the walls were filled in with stones and red 
clay and plastered over, both inside and out- 
side, with plaster. To protect these walls 
from rain, the heavily thatched roof was 
made to extend some feet beyond them and 
was supported by substantial pillars. The 
two stories within and the stairway con- 
174 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



necting them seemed most marvelous to the 
ignorant Waganda, who had never before 
seen one house built on top of another. 
The wooden floor and the lattice-work for 
windows did much toward making the house 
comfortable and wholesome as a home for 
the white men. 

With all the delays caused by inefficient 
and lazy workmen, by Mr. Mackay's occa- 
sional attacks of fever, and by the dozen 
and one other hindrances that may not be 
named, a full year passed before the new 
home was completed. The fame of this 
wonderful house and farm spread even be- 
yond the bounds of Uganda, and here and 
there some enterprising man began to copy 
this or that improvement suggested by the 
white man's way of living. 

For three years the missionaries had been 
drinking the same kind of water as was used 
by the natives. Not a well or a pump had 
ever been seen in the land. The water 
which naturally drained into the hollow 
swamps between the hills, carrying filth 
175 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



with it, was the only supply the Waganda 
knew. After a fearful plague had swept 
over the land and the white men themselves 
had been weakened by repeated attacks of 
fever, they realized the urgent need for a 
well of their own where they could find pure 
fresh water. They decided to dig a well 
within their own premises. The men who 
were set to work with pick and shovel could 
not believe that water could be found by dig- 
ging into the top of a hill. Water could be 
found only at the bottom, they said. 

"When we got too far down to throw up 
the earth with a shovel, " says Mr. Mackay, 
"I set up a trestle of strong trees; and with 
rope and pulley and bucket, much to the as- 
tonishment of all the natives, we hoisted up 
the clay, till we reached water just at the 
depth I predicted. The Waganda never 
saw a deep well before, and would not be- 
lieve that water could be had on a hillside 
until they saw the liquid itself. It took 
more than a week to sink the well ; but when 
I afterwards repaired a battered pump 
176 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



which I bought in London, and they saw a 
copious stream ascend twenty feet high, and 
flow and flow, as long as one worked the 
handle, their wonder and amazement knew 
no bounds. 

"Makay liibare! Makay lubare dala!" 
was cried by all. [Mackay is the great 
spirit, he is truly the great spirit.] But I 
told them that there was only one great 
Spirit, that is, God, and I was only a man 
like themselves. To each company that 
came near I explained the action of the 
pump, some understanding best when I said 
that it was only a sort of elephant's trunk 
made of copper. To others I explained 
that it was only a beer-drinking tube on a 
large scale, with a tongue of iron that 
sucked up the water, as their tongues 
sucked up the beer from their gourds. 

"Oh, the Bazungu, the Bazungu! they are 
the men; they can do everything; the Arabs 
and coast men know nothing at all ; they can 
only draw water in the swamp where we get 
it ourselves; but, oh, eli, eh, Mackay is 
177 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



clever, clever; the king will get them to 
carry him to see this wonderful thing." 

Very seldom was the " white man of 
work" unwelcome at court when he had 
time to go. Because of the wonderful 
things he made he became very popular 
with the king. One day he brought to the 
court a diamond and showed the king how 
glass is cut. He also exhibited a yoke and 
explained how oxen are harnessed so that 
they may be used for drawing loads. 

"There must remain nothing for white 
men to know they know everything!" said 
Mutesa in his astonishment. 

"We know yet only the beginning of 
things. Every year we make advances in 
knowledge," Mackay replied. 

"Can Waganda ever become clever like 
the Bazungut" 

"Yes, and yet even more clever." 

The king laughed and said; "I don't be- 
lieve it." Of course, the chiefs laughed too, 
as they always did whenever the king 
laughed. 

178 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



"Is it not the case," asked Mackay, "that 
the scholar usually becomes wiser than his 
teacher? The skill of the Bazungu to-day 
is much greater than their skill a year ago, 
while to-morrow they will improve on the 
wisdom of to-day. The pupil stands on the 
shoulders of him that taught him. He sees 
all that his master sees, and a great deal 
farther too." All seemed delighted with 
the idea. A few moments later, when 
court was dismissed, many of the chiefs 
heartily shook hands with Mr. Mackay. 

The fame of the "white man of work" 
reached its climax when he successfully 
served as undertaker for the king's mother, 
Namasole. While she was ill with fever, 
she refused to take any of the white man's 
medicine, nor would she allow any one near 
her wearing calico or anything foreign, so 
wedded was she to her old heathen ways. 
The native witch doctors brought their 
charms to her bedside and chanted their 
prayers over her, but she only grew worse. 

When she died, the drums at the palace 
179 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



were loudly beaten to frighten away the 
"king of terrors" who, they feared, might 
escort her departed spirit into the unseen 
world. In Uganda, only the souls of kings 
and great men and women were supposed to 
live after death. Special care was there- 
fore taken at royal burials to give the dead 
due honor; for their spirits were supposed 
to enter into certain persons who then be- 
came witches and had the power, if angry, 
to do great evil to men. The story of the 
coffin and the sermon he preached through 
its making, the " white man of work" him- 
self will tell. 

"The royal mourning lasted a month, 
during which time no work was allowed to 
be done in the land. No boat could start 
nor any one carry a load, until the queen 
was buried. But while others were resting, 
I was toiling hard night and day, for thirty 
days, for all were waiting for me. 

"The morning after Namasole died, Mr. 
'Flaherty and I went to court to pay our 
respects to the king. All the chiefs were 
180 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



clad in rags, and crying, or rather roaring, 
with their hands clasped above their heads. 
Mutesa determined to make a funeral to 
surpass in splendor any burial that had ever 
taken place in the country. Such is the de- 
sire of every king to outstrip his predeces- 
sors. Fifty thousand bark cloths were or- 
dered to be levied in the land, besides some 
thousand of yards of English calico. 

"Mutesa asked me how we buried royalty 
in Europe? I replied that we made three 
coffins, the inner of wood, the next of lead, 
and the outer of wood covered with cloth. 
I knew the custom of the Waganda in bury- 
ing their kings. It is to wrap the body, 
after mummifying it, in several thousand 
bark cloths, and to bury the great pile in a 
huge grave, building a house over all and 
appointing certain witches to guard the 
grave for generations. 

" l Would you be able to make the three 
coffins!' Mutesa asked me. 

"I replied, 'Yes, if you find the material.' 

"He said he had no lead but he had a lot 
181 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



of copper trays and drums which he would 
supply, if I could manufacture a coffin out 
of them. 

" Frequently we had been twitted by the 
king at court for failing to work for him; 
accordingly I agreed to be undertaker, 
thinking it a small affair. But then the di- 
mensions! Everything was to be AS LARGE 
As POSSIBLE!! Immediately all the copper 
in the king's stores was turned out and sent 
down to our mission. Fine large bronze 
trays of Egyptian workmanship, copper 
drums, copper cans and copper pots and 
plates all were produced, and out of 
these materials I was to make a coffin for 
the queen. All the skilled workmen were 
ordered to my assistance. 

"Next morning I went off to Rusaka some 
three miles distant, to measure the body. 
Much objection was made by the royal 
ladies there at my going in to measure the 
corpse. But my friend Kyambalango was 
there, as master of ceremonies, and he ex- 
plained that I was commissioned by the 
182 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



king. But I was somewhat taken aback on 
being told by some of the other chiefs that 
I should have measured not the corpse but 
the dimensions of the grave, and make the 
coffin to fit the latter. I told them there 
was not copper enough in the land to make 
a box larger than necessary; that if there 
was, I would willingly make a coffin as large 
as a mountain, but as it was, I could make 
the inner coffins to suit the body and the 
outer one as large as a house if they liked. 
"In ten days* time we had finished the 
two inner coffins, the first being of wood, 
cushioned all inside with cotton wool, and 
covered all over, inside and out, with snow 
white calico, secured with a thousand copper 
tacks. Ornamental work I made by cutting 
patterns out of black and white pocket- 
handkerchiefs, and tacking them on. The 
copper box measured seven feet long by 
three feet wide and three feet high, shaped 
like a coffin. But the king's copper was 
enough for barely more than the lid and 
ends, so we had to supply for the sides four, 
183 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



sheets of copper plate, which the king paid 
for at once in ivory, as we did not think 
well to give these away out of the mission's 
stores. We gave our workmanship and 
skill and time, besides the tools, and all the 
iron nails (no small quantity). We re- 
ceived copper wire as an equivalent for the 
copper tacks. Even the copper coffin we 
neatly lined all over inside with white calico 
tacked onto laths which were first riveted to 
the copper plate. 

"It is needless to describe the worry and 
trouble we had, working late and early, and 
sometimes all the night. At every hour of 
the day pages were sent down to inspect the 
progress and ask when it would be done. 
The native workmen, especially the head- 
men among them, would do almost nothing, 
and generally spoiled what they did. They 
preferred sitting down all day smoking, and 
watching how I did. I was able to get some 
assistance, however, from several of the 
younger fellows. 

"But even in the doing of a small piece 
184 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



of work like this, which all granted was far 
beyond their own powers to accomplish, 
there must needs be an exhibition of jeal- 
ousy and ill feeling on the part of some 
chiefs and Arabs. 

"They told the king that we made the 
coffins small, much too small for Namasole, 
because we wanted the timber to finish our 
own house with; that we had already se- 
creted in our house a lot of boards; that 
perhaps we might show good workmanship, 
but we could not work fast. 

"Mutesa alone stood our friend. He re- 
fused to believe that we had appropriated 
any boards, while he said to our accusers 
that what was done well could not be done 
in a day. 'Can a woman cook plantains 
well if you hurry her?' asked the friendly 
king. 

"In a week's time we had about a hun- 
dred boards cut and squared to fit, and 
nailed together with strong ribs like the 
sides of a schooner. When together, it 
looked like a small house, rather than a 
185 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



coffin. After a few more days, we had 
enough boards for the lid. Then we cov- 
ered the whole outside with native bark 
cloth, and lined the inside with pure snow- 
white calico. Each side was made a piece 
by itself so that it might be easily carried. 
A thousand men arrived to bear the parts to 
the grave, and most fortunately it did not 
rain. We put them together before the 
king, who challenged all to say if such 
workmanship could be done in the country 
by Waganda, or if anything of the kind had 
ever been seen in the land. 

"Next day we had the king's orders to go 
to the burial. He wanted us to go the same 
day, but we were too tired, having for a full 
month been constantly at saw and hammer 
from dawn to midnight, and often later. 

"The grave was a huge pit, some twenty 
feet by fifteen feet at the mouth, by about 
thirty feet deep. It was dug in the center 
of the late queen's sleeping-house a mon- 
strous hut some one hundred and fifty feet 
in diameter. The monster pit was neatly 
186 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



lined all round with bark cloth. Into this 
several thousand new bark cloths were 
thrown and carefully spread on the bottom 
filling up the hole a long way. Then the 
sides of the huge box were lowered in with 
much trouble. I descended and nailed the 
corners together. 

" After that I was summoned to the cere- 
mony of putting the corpse into the coffin. 
Thousands of women were there, yelling 
with all their might, and a few with tears 
in their eyes. Only the ladies of the royal 
family and the highest chiefs were near the 
corpse, which by this time was reduced to a 
mummy by constantly squeezing out the 
fluids with rags of bark cloth. It was 
wrapped in a new cloth, and laid on the 
ground. The chiefs half filled the nicely 
padded coffin with bleached calico ; then sev- 
eral bundles of petty charms belonging to 
the queen were put in; after that, the 
corpse; and then the coffin was filled up 
with more calico. 

"Kimbugwa, Kauta, and the other chiefs 
187 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



in charge, carried the coffin to the court, 
where the grave-house was, when much 
more yelling took place. I screwed the lid 
down, but such was the affection of some of 
the royal ladies for the deceased that I had 
to have them ordered away, because of their 
crying and tears and hugging of the coffin, 
before I could get near to perform my 
duties as undertaker. 

"Then came the copper coffin, into which 
the other was lowered by means of a huge 
sheet. The lid of that had to be riveted 
down, and that process was new to the 
chiefs standing by. 'He cuts iron like 
thread!' they said, as the pincers snapped 
the nails. 'Mackay is a proper smith ! ' they 
all shouted. 

"With no mechanical contrivances, it was 
astonishing how they got the copper coffin, 
with its ponderous contents, lowered into 
the deep grave without letting it fall end 
foremost into the great box below. The 
task was effected, however, by means of the 
great multitude of men. 
188 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



" Thousands of yards of unbleached calico 
were then filled in round and over the cop- 
per coffin, until the big box was half full. 
The remainder was filled up with bark 
cloths, as also all the space round the out- 
side of the box. The lid was lowered, and 
I descended once more to nail it down. 
Several thousand more pieces of bark cloth 
were then laid on till within three feet of 
the surface, when earth was thrown in to 
the level of the floor. 

".We returned at dusk, but the burying 
was not completed till nearly midnight. 
Next morning, every man, woman, and child 
in the land had their heads shaved, and put 
off their mourning dress of tattered bark 
cloth and belts of plantain leaves. The 
country had been waiting till we were done 
with our carpentry." 

In the grave of Queen Namasole that day, 
it is said, there was buried seventy-five 
thousand dollars' worth of bark cloth and 
calico. A more splendid burial had never 
before been given to royalty in Uganda. 
189 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



King Mutesa was proud to think that in his 
kingdom so wonderful a piece of work was 
possible. Mackay had won his good will as 
never before, and was longing and praying 
that at last he might be used to win Mu- 
tesa 's heart for the Lord Christ. 

It was shortly before Christmas that his 
great opportunity came to plead with the 
king. This is the story of what took place 
as Mackay tells it. 

"In the king's ~baraza, strangers were 
called forward to describe burial customs in 
vari >us parts of Africa and Arabia. Some 
told of burying scores of living virgins with 
a dead king ; others told of how human lives 
were offered as sacrifices on like occasions; 
while others told of the pomp and ceremony 
displayed at funerals. 

"Turning to Mackay, the king asked; 
'Tell me how they bury in your country? 
Do they do as I did in burying Namasole? 
Did you see any human sacrifices then ? ' 

"Masudi (an Arab) began to describe to 
me how when Mutesa 's grandfather died, 
190 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



his father had thousands slaughtered at the 4 
grave. 

" * Don't mention such things/ I said to 
Masudi, with such a gesture of horror that 
he became quiet at once; 'they are too cruel 
to be spoken about before the Mutesa of to- 
day. You, Mutesa, far surpass any one, not 
only in Africa, or in Arabia, or in India, 
but even in Europe itself. I never heard 
of so much valuable cloth being buried in a 
royal grave as you buried with Namasole.' 
This, of course, pleased him, as black men 
are fond of flattery. 'But let me tell you 
that all that fine cloth and those fine coffins 
will one day all be rotten. It may take ten 
years, or may be a hundred years, or it may 
be a thousand years; but some day all will 
be rotten, and the body inside will rot too. 
Now we know this, hence in Christian coun- 
tries we say that it matters little in what 
way the body is buried, for it will rot some 
time or other; but it matters everything 
what becomes of the soul. Look at these 
two head chiefs of yours sitting by you. 
191 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



The katikiro is your right hand and Kyam- 
balango is your left hand. They are both 
very rich. Next to you they are the great- 
est in the kingdom. They have cloth and 
cattle and lands and women and slaves 
very much of all. Here they have much 
honor, and when they die they will be buried 
with much honor, but yet their bodies will 
one day rot. 

" 'Now let me have only an old bark cloth, 
and nothing more of this world's riches, and 
I would not exchange my place for all the 
wealth and all the greatness of both the ka- 
tikiro and Kyambalango. All their great- 
ness will pass away, and their souls are lost 
in the darkness of belief in the wizards, 
while I know that my soul is saved by Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, so that I have 
riches that never perish which they know 
nothing about.' 

"The katikiro, evidently struck by my 

contempt of all his greatness, replied that 

Mutesa was a believer in Jesus Christ, while 

he was a servant of Mutesa, consequently 

192 



MACKAY'S NEW NAME 



he was a Christian. Mutesa then began his 
usual excuses. 

1 ' i There are these two religions, ' he said. 
'When Masudi reads his book, the Koran, 
the white men call it lies; when the white 
men read their book, Masudi calls it lies. 
Which is true?' 

"I left my seat, and going forward to 
the mat on which the katikiro was sitting, 
I knelt on it, and in the most solemn man- 
ner, I said, 'Oh, Mutesa, my friend, do not 
always repeat that excuse ! When you and 
I stand before God at the great day of 
judgment, will you reply to Almighty God 
that you did not know what to believe be- 
cause Masudi told you one thing and 
Mackay told you another? No, you have 
the New Testament ; read there for yourself. 
God will judge you by that. There never 
was any one yet who looked for the truth 
there and did not find it.' ' 

So Mackay pleaded with Mutesa. Never 
again did another opportunity come. Like 
Agrippa in the days of Paul, this black 
193 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



king did not heed the Christian plea. His 
health grew worse continually. Weak and 
suffering intensely, he was unable to hold 
baraza. Two years after his mother's pom- 
pous funeral, he too died, and died a hea- 
then. 



194 



CHAPTER X 

THREE BOY HEROES AND ONE BOY TYRANT 

BUSY writing home letters, one night in 
October, 1884, Mr. O 'Flaherty for 
hours had been the only one astir in the 
missionaries' home. From his upstairs 
window, in the midnight stillness, he heard 
some one below softly calling his name, 
1 1 Bwana Philipo ! Bwana Philipo. ' ' Slip- 
ping down stairs, he found a native Chris- 
tian with a friend, who under cover of the 
night had run to break the news which the 
missionaries had long dreaded to hear. 

"King Mutesa is dead," they said, ''for- 
tify yourselves; the mission house will 
probably be plundered, and who knows how 
many may be murdered ? ' ' 

Mr. O 'Flaherty returned to the house and 
woke Mr. Ashe, who shortly before had ar- 
195 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



rived as a new missionary in Uganda. Mr. 
Mackay was down at the port on the lake, 
twelve miles away, overhauling the new mis- 
sion boat. As the two men talked and 
prayed together, seeking to know the wisest 
step to take, now and again the quick beat 
of drums was heard, while every gust of 
wind sweeping across the valleys bore the 
weird cries of the palace mourners. 

Judging from the amount of wailing at 
court, one might suppose the late monarch 
had been greatly beloved by his subjects; 
but a glance behind the scenes before his 
death might have led to a different opinion. 
The direct cause of Mutesa's death will 
never be known. Some said that the Arab's 
medicine had proved to be a poison instead 
of a cure, while others reported that the 
king had been smothered to death by some 
of his own wives. If either of these reports 
be true, we may be sure that those who took 
his life were among the loudest mourners. 

It was an anxious night for all who had 
heard the news. For generations, the death 
196 



THREE BOY HEROES 



of a monarch in Uganda had been the signal 
for robbery and bloodshed. People, some- 
times to the number of two thousand, had 
been captured in the highways and offered 
as sacrifices at the grave of the dead ruler. 
Until the chiefs met and chose a new king 
from among the sons of the late monarch, 
no one was sure of his life. Upon the 
crowning of the fortunate prince, all his 
brothers who had been held as prisoners 
would be slain except the eldest, who ac- 
cording to Uganda custom, never sat on the 
throne. The old chiefs who had elected the 
new king were then usually deposed and 
some of them beheaded ; while the young rul- 
er chose new chiefs and new court officers. 
Until the young king was well established 
on his throne, Uganda usually was a land 
full of murder and thievery. 

So on the death of King Mutesa, the mis- 
sionaries feared the usual cruelties. Al- 
though Mutesa had not been to them always 
a faithful friend, yet they realized that it 
was his protection which had kept the jeal- 
197 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



ous chiefs and Arabs from driving them 
from the land long ago. What was there 
now to keep a bloodthirsty mob from attack- 
ing them, from burning their houses, from 
plundering their gardens, and from sending 
them out of the country or perhaps tortur- 
ing them to death ? And would their faith- 
ful Christians have to suffer with them? 
"With these thoughts of possible danger, the 
missionaries prayed to the Father; and 
trusting in his protection, they waited for 
the morning. 

Early the next day, two messengers ar- 
rived from Mr. Mackay who, when they left 
the lake, had not yet heard the news. The 
men, having been robbed of their clothing 
on the way and compelled to flee for their 
lives, were in a sorry plight on reaching 
the missionaries' home. In the meantime, 
Mackay worked hard all day at the boat. 
At sundown when he was about to have his 
supper of plantains, he saw the people of 
the place coming toward him armed with 
shields and spears. On hearing the all-im- 
198 



THREE BOY HEROES 



portant news, lie immediately launched the 
mission boat so that the entire party might 
quickly escaped if the mission house was 
burned, as those who reported the king's 
death assured him it would be. 

But thanks to the katikiro, who became 
the ruler until the new king was chosen, 
the slaughters and thefts which all expected, 
were checked. Probably some lives were 
taken, but these were comparatively so few 
that the missionaries knew nothing of them 
until later. In the council of the great 
chiefs, the question was debated whether or 
not both the missionaries and the Arabs 
should be attacked. In this council, some 
were eager to rush at once to the plunder; 
but it was the word of the katikiro which 
held them in check and which saved the 
lives and property of the foreigners from 
the hands of their enemies. 

But who was to be the new king? The 

people waited breathlessly for the decision 

of the council of the great chiefs. When 

the announcement was made, a great cheer- 

199 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



ing arose from the palace, and some Chris- 
tian boy escaped from the crowd unnoticed 
and ran to tell the news to his white friends. 

"Mwanga alide Buganda." (Mwanga 
has eaten Uganda), he said. 

To the missionaries this seemed good 
news. Mwanga was a lad about eighteen 
years of age who looked more like his father 
than any of his brothers. During Mutesa's 
reign, he had occasionally visited the mis- 
sionaries and had learned a little of read- 
ing. 

"If you should become king on your 
father's death, how will you treat us?" 
Mr. Ashe had once asked him when the boy 
was paying a visit to the missionaries. 

"I shall like you very much, and show 
you every favor," was the reply. 

However, it spoiled Mwanga to be made 
king of Uganda. During Mutesa 's lifetime, 
his sons had no power, living lives but lit- 
tle better than those of the ordinary blacks ; 
now, while still only a boy, Mwanga was 
made the great king of Uganda, and he knew 
200 



THREE BOY HEROES 



no one in all the world so powerful as him- 
self. 

So sudden a change was enough to turn 
the head of a stronger man than Mwanga. 
He began to show all his father's weak- 
nesses without any of his strong points. 
Instead of being the real ruler of Uganda, 
he soon became the slave of his katikiro. 
Mwanga seemed always afraid to do what 
he knew was right ; and, when urged by his 
katikiro and chiefs to do wrong, he always 
proved too weak to say "no." The kati- 
kiro, the same man that held the position in 
Mutesa's reign, along with certain of the 
chiefs hated the missionaries exceedingly, 
and it did not take long for Mwanga to catch 
their spirit and to be ready to follow their 
leading. 

First, Mwanga, wanting to impress the 
missionaries by his new power, haughtily 
refused to see them when they first called 
to pay him their respects. Somewhat dis- 
heartened by this first reception, the mis- 
sionaries did not venture again to the court 
201 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



until some days later; and for this neglect 
they were chided by Mwanga. 

The second day after Mutesa's death was 
announced, the "white man of work" was 
called from repairing his boat by the chiefs 
who found they could not build the dead 
king's coffin without the help of the white 
men. As soon as this work was completed, 
Mackay returned to the lake shore. While 
he was absent from the capital, his enemies 
busied themselves circulating slanderous re- 
ports about him. They said that, having 
slept in the boat at night, he came ashore in 
the morning and stole the people's plantains 
and goats. The fact of the matter was that 
the boat was beached at the time, receiving 
a coat of paint, and Mackay was ill with 
fever in his tent. 

Mwanga had not long been king when the 
rumor was brought to his court that an army 
of white men was marching to Uganda by 
way of the land of Usoga. Usoga was a 
country just east of Uganda, the only neigh- 
bor of which the king was really afraid. 
202. 



THREE BOY HEROES 



For generations the prophecy had been 
handed down among the Waganda that 
some day Uganda would be " eat en up" 
(conquered) by enemies entering the coun- 
try from the eastern side through Usoga, 
the "back door." 

Now, there were many reasons to make 
Mwanga begin to think that the foreigners 
who were coming were enemies. He had 
heard of fighting on the part of the English 
in Egypt to the north. News reached 
him that the Germans (to him the same as 
the English), were fighting for land in the 
region of Zanzibar; after gaining their 
prize there, he expected them to march in- 
land, conquering as they came. In addi- 
tion, he had been told of English and Ger- 
mans who were living at the southern end 
of Victoria Lake. Now, worst of all, there 
was an army of white men in Usoga. 
Surely, the Englishmen already in Uganda 
were part of this great force and, after hav- 
ing gathered a large number of followers 
in his kingdom, they would unite with the 
203 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



army in Usoga and "eat up the land." A 
spark was all that was needed to fire these 
suspicions. This spark was supplied by 
Mujasi, the captain of the king's body- 
guard, who had long been a bitter enemy of 
the missionaries. 

One day Mujasi noticed a lad, formerly 
a follower of his, repairing the missionaries' 
fence. He complained to the katikiro that 
the white men were ruining the country, 
that they paid men to work for them, so 
that the chiefs like himself could no longer 
get workers for nothing. A few days later, 
several Christian lads, the servants of a cer- 
tain chief, attended the communion service 
on Sabbath at the mission instead of thatch- 
ing a roof for the chief. Because of this 
complaints were made. 

Mwanga's mother hearing of what had 
happened, exaggerated the report by saying 
to the katikiro that no chiefs could get 
work done, because the missionaries were 
inducing hosts of people to serve them with 
the purpose of raising an army of rebellion. 
204 



THREE BOY HEROES 



Mujasi also added the charge that every 
time Mackay crossed the lake, he took hun- 
dreds of Waganda with him. All these 
complaints together with the story of the 
white men in Usoga prepared the way for 
the first terrible crisis which broke out a 
few days later. 

Mr. Mackay, having finished repairing the 
boat, gained permission from the king and 
the katikiro to go to Msulala at the south- 
ern end of the lake in order to take letters 
for home friends to a place where they 
would be carried on to the coast. About 
ten o'clock the next morning, the party 
started on the twelve mile walk to the port. 
The crew carrying the baggage and boat's 
gear, five or six of the schoolboys together 
with Mr. Mackay and Mr. Ashe, made up 
the company. 

The boys and the crew with the loads 
went ahead, the two missionaries bringing 
up the rear. While on their way, a rumor 
reached them that Mujasi was out with a 
large army. As they walked along, every 
205 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



now and then they met companies of men, 
armed with spears, hurrying past them. 
Recognizing one of the men, Mr. Mackay 
asked him where the soldiers were going. 
He looked a little confused but replied that 
they had been ordered by Mujasi to capture 
some of the king's women who had run 
away. The company walked on until they 
were within a couple of miles of the lake. 
They were just entering a bit of scrubby 
forest, when a force of several hundred men 
headed by Mujasi himself sprang upon 
them. Armed with guns, spears, and 
shields, they shouted, "Go back! go back!" 
"We are the king's friends, we have re- 
ceived the king's leave. How do you dare 
to insult the king's guests?" the mission- 
aries asked as they tried to proceed. At 
this the crowd rushed upon them, snatching 
from them their walking sticks, their only 
weapons, and jostling them about in every 
direction. Mackay and Ashe did not at- 
tempt to fight, but calmly sat down by the 
side of the path. 

206 



THREE BOY HEROES 



"Where are you going?" demanded Mu- 
jasi. 

"We are going to the port, having been 
given the permission of the king and kati- 
kiro." 

"You lie," he replied. "Where is the 
Waganda messenger to go with you?" 

"We have none," was the answer. 

Again the crowd of warriors rushed upon 
them, pulled them to their feet, and pointed 
the muzzles of their guns right at the white 
men's breasts. The captives, however, said 
nothing, but quietly abandoning the trip to 
the lake, they reversed their steps, thinking 
this was merely a mad freak of Mujasi's, 
and never suspecting that he was acting un- 
der the king's orders. The mob continued 
to yell at them, to mock and to abuse them 
with the most offensive language, until they 
tired of hearing their own voices, seeing 
that the missionaries walked quietly on. 

When they finally came to the point 
where two roads met, one leading directly to 
Mengo, Mwanga's new capital, the other to 
207 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



the missionaries 7 home, they halted until 
the crew and the five Christian boys over- 
took them. The crew, after being robbed of 
their guns, were freed, while the five Chris- 
tian boys were marched along with their 
hands bound. The missionaries were then 
told to go back to their own home, and the 
Waganda boys under guard were marched 
off to the capital. It was now three o'clock 
in the afternoon, and the missionaries had 
been walking for five hours. Wearied and 
disappointed, they sat down to consider 
what should be done next. Mr. Ashe tells 
the story 'of what then happened: 

"We decided to lose no time, but to lay 
the whole matter at once before the kati- 
kiro. When we reached his enclosure, we 
were bidden to wait. No one dared to an- 
nounce our presence to the katikiro, as Mu- 
jasi was having a private interview with 
him, reporting his success in the late en- 
counter. After waiting some time, we got 
up and went to the doorway, and Mackay 
called out loudly, * Katikiro, my friend. I 
208 



THREE BOY HEROES 



am your friend. We are the white men.' 
After calling once or twice, we were ad- 
mitted and invited inside the house. 
Mackay stated our case and asked why we 
had been so badly treated." 

To the surprise of the missionaries, the 
katikiro merely smiled and said that Mu- 
jasi had turned them back because he found 
them taking Waganda out of the country. 
Mackay assured him that nothing of the 
kind had been done. 

"Oh, yes, Mujasi has caught five/' in- 
sisted the katikiro. 

Just then another case came on for hear- 
ing and the subject was dropped. As soon 
as possible, Mackay insisted on their return- 
ing to the case about which they were most 
concerned, and told the katikiro that it was 
not right for them to treat their guests as 
they had done. 

"You are always taking away our people 
and returning with hosts of white men and 
hiding them in Usoga with the intention of 
eating up our country," he cried. 
209 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Suddenly with flashing eyes, he turned to 
Mujasi and said: " To-morrow morning 
take your army and tie up Philipo and this 
other man, Mackay, and drive them back to 
the country from which they came." 

Mr. Ashe says: "Mackay and I were ut- 
terly taken aback and astounded at this de- 
cision, and we begged the katikiro to hear 
us, and tried to take his hand to plead once 
more. But he waved us scornfully aside, 
and, with a cry of triumph from Mujasi's 
soldiers, we were hustled and dragged from 
the great man's presence, a dangerous and 
angry mob momentarily growing thicker 
about us. Soon they were actually quar- 
reling for our clothes. 'Mine shall be his 
coat/ shrieked one; 'Mine his trousers;' 'No 
mine ! ' and there was a scuffle to get nearer 
the clothing they coveted. However, the 
katikiro did not wish matters to go quite 
so far, and sent his head executioners to 
warn off the vulture soldiers. The order 
was instantly obeyed, and dazed and amazed 
we found ourselves alone. It was now near 
210 



THREE BOY HEROES 



sunset and we made our way back home in 
a very unhappy frame of mind." 

In the quiet of their home, the mission- 
aries knelt together and poured out their 
hearts in prayer to the Heavenly Father, 
trusting in his protection and asking for his 
guidance. It grieved them to think that the 
work of the mission might be suddenly 
ended; yet it looked as though the katikiro 
and Mujasi meant to kill every one they 
might find who had come to the missionaries 
to learn. 

Fortunately some cloth was still left in 
the house. This they finally decided to turn 
into presents. Six loads were sent to the 
king, six to the katikiro, and one to Mujasi, 
with the hope and prayer that their anger 
might be calmed. The katikiro graciously 
accepted his gift, sending back word that 
again they would be brothers. Since the 
palace gates were closed for the night, the 
king's gift was returned with the message 
that the king would receive it in the morn- 
ing. Mujasi, too, accepted his load; but 
211 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



sent word that lie was collecting a force to 
rob them in the morning and burn their 
house; but seeing they had sent presents to 
the king and katikiro also, he would await 
further orders. 

The missionaries urged all their Waganda 
servants and pupils who stayed on their 
premises to flee for their lives. One boy, 
however, Seruwanga by name, would not 
go. Mr. Ashe finding him asked him what 
madness it was which made him linger when 
in such danger. "I am going, my friend," 
he answered; but, alas, it was too late. 
That evening he, too, was captured. Dur- 
ing the night, under cover of the darkness, 
two Christian young men ventured to come 
to the missionaries' home to tell them of 
their sympathy and loyalty. The next day 
Mujasi came and searched the house for 
Waganda Christians, but none were found. 

For some reason, all but three of the boys 
captured the day before were released; but 
in the afternoon the report reached the mis- 
sionaries that Mujasi was going to burn to 
212 



THREE BOY HEROES 



death the three who were still bound. None 
can express the grief the missionaries felt. 
They loved the boys as they would have 
loved their own children. One of them, 
Seruwanga, was going to die because he had 
lingered too long in the mission premises. 

The second, Kakumba, used to be the page 
of a powerful chief. On his master's death 
he had expressed the wish that he might 
come and be the missionaries' servant in- 
stead of belonging to any other chief. So 
he had been allowed to live in the mission- 
aries' household. 

The third, 'Lugalama, the youngest of all, 
was a handsome young boy of twelve, who, 
some years before, had been carried away 
from his home as a captive in war. Having 
fallen into the hands of Sebwato, a Chris- 
tian chief, he was finally given his freedom 
and sent to Mr. Ashe to be cared for. The 
boy became a true friend of the missionary 
and a general favorite about the mission 
grounds. 

These three boys, the oldest fifteen and 
213 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



the youngest twelve, were to be burned to 
death by the savage Mujasi merely for the 
crime of having lived with the white men. 
The missionaries did everything they could 
to save their boys; but all efforts were in 
vain. 

The sorrowful story was afterwards told 
to Mr. Ashe by Kidza, a Christian who as 
Mujasi's guide had witnessed the cruel 
scene. This is the account as Mr. Ashe 
gives it: 

"Lugalama and Kakumba, when first ar- 
rested, were taken into a house, and Ka- 
kumba was beaten in accordance with a 
common Uganda custom in the treatment of 
prisoners. They had compassion on Luga- 
lama and gave him some food. Next day 
they were taken to the king's enclosure and 
their sentence was pronounced, Mujasi be- 
ing the chief accuser. Lugalama 's former 
master tried to save him, but in vain. 

"So the three boys, Seruwanga, Ka- 
kumba, and Lugalama, were led away to 
death, a mocking crowd following them. 
214 



THREE BOY HEROES 



" 'Oh, you know Isa Masiya [Jesus 
Christ],' said Mujasi. 'You know how to 
read.' 'You believe you will rise from the 
dead?' 'Well, I shall burn you and see if 
it be so.' 

" These were some of the mocking taunts 
which they endured, and loud was the laugh- 
ter which greeted such sallies. But the 
young Christians, as some reported, an- 
swered boldly and faithfully. Seruwanga 
was a daring fellow, and I can well believe 
that when Mujasi mocked he would sing a 
song they often sang at the Mission, 'Killa 
siku tuusifu' ['Daily, daily sing the 
praises'], Kakumba, too, had come to the 
missionaries when all others were afraid, 
and perhaps his voice joined in the song. 
But what could have been in poor little Lu- 
galama's heart but the haunting, overmas- 
tering horror of death and such a death! 
There were none who dared to beat upon 
their breasts and show the sorrow that they 
felt, though there were many sympathizing 
friends who followed, many compassionate 
215 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



hearts that God had touched with a pity 
which perhaps before they had never 
known. 

"The mob, carrying gourds full of ba- 
nana-cider, found their way toward the bor- 
ders of a dismal swamp. Here they halted. 
Part of the crowd brought fire-wood, others 
made a kind of rough frame-work, under 
which the fuel was heaped. Then the pris- 
oners were seized, and a scene of sickening 
cruelty was enacted. Some laid hold of Se- 
ruwanga, others of Kakumba, and others of 
Lugalama, brandishing their long, curved 
knives. Seruwanga committed his cause to 
Him who judgeth righteously, and the cruel 
knife could not wring from him a cry ; bleed- 
ing he was cast into the fire. Kakumba ap- 
pealed to Mujasi. Mujasi believed in Allah 
[God], the All-merciful he pleaded a rela- 
tionship with him; but, alas! there is as 
much mercy in the knife in the execution- 
er's hand as in Mujasi 's heart, and he too 
underwent the short agony and the flame. 

"And now the saddest scene of all. Mu- 
216 



THREE BOY HEROES 



jasi bade them treat Lugalama as they 
treated the others. They came nearer, and 
he cried out, 'Oh, do not cut off my arms; 
I will not struggle I will not fight ! Only 
throw me into the fire!' Surely this was 
one of the saddest prayers ever prayed on 
this sad earth 'Only throw me into the 
fire!' 

"The butchers did their work and marred 
what was so wonderfully made, and the 
poor bleeding boy was placed on the frame- 
work that the slow fire might finish what the 
cruel knife had begun. A wail of anguish 
went up, becoming fainter and fainter a 
last sob, and then silence. 

"Kidza stood sadly watching the sorrow- 
ful scene, wondering perhaps whether his 
turn might be next, when Mujasi, drunken 
with blood, came to him. 'Ah, you are 
here ! I will burn you too and your house- 
hold. I know you are a follower of Isa 
[Jesus]' 'Yes, I am,' said Kidza, 'and I 
am not ashamed of it!' Mujasi then left 
him," 

217 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



"What shall I say of that day of wait- 
ing, hoping, praying, fearing praying not 
vainly, though at the very time the awful 
deed was being done? 

"Such prayers are not vain as they may 
seem, but the answer to them is yet to come. 
That was a day when the wrongs of Africa 
came home to me and burned themselves 
deep into my very soul that day when Lu- 
galama fell asleep, January thirty-first, 
1885." 



218 



CHAPTER XI 

STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS WITH NERVE 

AFTER the death of the three Christian 
boys, Mujasi set a guard about the 
mission premises and announced that he 
would burn alive every person who had 
adopted the white man's religion. He pre- 
sented to the king and katikiro a long list 
of those who he thought should be killed; 
but, surprised at seeing the names of certain 
prominent officers among the rest, the ka- 
tikiro cried: "What, will you kill chiefs, 
too?" and Mujasi was thereupon compelled 
to cease his troubling. Soon the guard 
about the mission premises was removed; 
and, for a time, Mwanga's thirst for blood 
seemed quenched. 

The white men scarcely knew, however, 
when to expect the storm again to break. 
219 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



If the missionaries were taken away or 
killed, what would become of the little 
Uganda church of about a hundred mem- 
bers? Hitherto the Christians had always 
met in the mission house for worship. It 
was the missionary who led in the service, 
and it was he who did most of the teaching. 
To the missionaries the Christians came for 
advice when in difficulty; and to the mis- 
sionaries they looked for encouragement 
when disheartened. If the missionaries 
were gone, would these Waganda stand by 
their Christian colors? 

To help them to be more independent in 
the time of trial two things were done. 
First, out of their own number certain men 
were elected as leaders or elders. In the 
homes of these men the Christians of the 
neighborhood would gather quietly to wor- 
ship or to study reading, when it might not 
be safe to meet in the missionaries' home. 
These elders were taught by the white men 
how to lead in worship, and were encour- 
aged to be worthy helpers to the others. 
220 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

The second thing done was made possi- 
ble by the very persecutions they were en- 
during. For some time after the terrible 
murder, only a few pupils dared to venture 
to the mission house. The missionaries, be- 
ing relieved of much of their teaching, gave 
their time largely to translating and print- 
ing. Not even one entire Gospel, as yet, 
had been translated into the Luganda lan- 
guage. All the Bible the "Waganda Chris- 
tians had (except a few who could read the 
coast language) was a few pages of Matthew 
and short selections chosen here and there 
from the Old and New Testaments. If 
their white teachers were driven from the 
country, how could the young Christians be 
expected to keep true to their Saviour, when 
they had so little opportunity to learn about 
him? For months, both by day and by 
night, the missionaries with the help of a 
small band of the more intelligent Chris- 
tians toiled away at the translation of Mat- 
thew 's Gospel into Luganda. 

No "readers" being arrested for some 
221 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



months, the Christians, and pupils who were 
not Christians as yet, gradually lost their 
fear and began to flock to the mission as 
before. Frequently, the school room and 
the new chapel were crowded to their ut- 
most. 

Strange to say, Mackay because of his 
mechanical skill again became popular at 
court. One morning on going to Itaraza, he 
was very much surprised to have the kati- 
kiro take him warmly by the hand and say 
that now Mackay was a favorite, and might 
have the katikiro's daughter for a wife. 
For a reply, Mackay merely asked him how 
long his favoritism would last. 

"The king was very gracious," said 
Mackay, "expressing the hope that our for- 
mer good relations were again restored. I 
told him that it seemed unreasonable that he 
and his people should value so highly our 
goods and workmanship, while he would not 
listen to what we said about the soul. The 
king said I was right, and the katikiro also 
said that we 'white men were evidently men 
222 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

of truth, for our cloth measured exactly as 
stated. A box of powder held the proper 
number of tins, with no sand mixed to adul- 
terate it, and our guns fired without explod- 
ing and killing the purchasers, while Arab 
traders in salt mixed ashes in it to adulter- 
ate it and make it look more ! ' ' 

For some weeks Mackay had frequent 
talks with the king, not hesitating to charge 
him plainly with the terrible crimes com- 
mitted in the king's name. Mwanga, how- 
ever, continued to declare his friendship, 
saying one day : "I will never let you leave 
me; and while I live, and my son's son lives, 
I am determined to have white men in my 
country." 

Yet only a few months later, or by the 
close of 1885, Mwanga showed himself a 
very different sort of king. The cruel part 
of his nature was awakened. Again re- 
ports came that an enemy was entering 
Uganda through the land of Usoga and 
would "eat" the country. A white general 
with a large following was already at the 
223 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



country's "back door." He and his army 
were being held as prisoners by the chief 
of that region who was awaiting Mwanga's 
orders. 

The fact really was that the white man 
about whom such swelling words were 
spoken was not the general of an army, but 
a missionary, the newly chosen bishop for 
Central and Eastern Africa. Utterly igno- 
rant of the long-standing prejudice against 
entering Uganda through Usoga, Bishop 
Hannington had taken what seemed to him 
the shortest and easiest road from the coast. 
The missionaries in Uganda had written him 
a letter warning him of the danger, but he 
had never received it. They had endeavored 
to explain to Mwanga that the bishop was 
only a teacher of God, like themselves, and 
had not thought of eating the country, but 
the chiefs persuaded his majesty to treat 
all white men as enemies. 

One day a page of the king secretly told 
the missionaries that Mwanga had sent an 
order to kill the bishop and all his men. 
224 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

They hurried to the court to plead that mes- 
sengers be sent to cancel the order; but for 
one excuse and another, Mwanga day after 
day refused to see them until it was too late, 
and a heathenish crime was committed at 
Uganda's "back door." 

In the land of Usoga, on the eastern bor- 
der of Uganda, Bishop Hannington for 
seven weary days was kept a prisoner in 
a dark, filthy hut. On the eighth day, 
Mwanga 's messengers arrived and bade him 
come forth from his prison. He staggered 
out, pale and worn with the fever which had 
wrecked his body during the week of aw r ful 
suffering in prison. Mr. Ashe tells the 
story as he heard it later from the lips of 
one who witnessed the dreadful tragedy. 

"One of the messengers snatches up his 
Bible," he says, "another his portfolio, and 
another his sketch-book; and they lead him 
out, telling him he is soon to join his men." 

"After two hours' walking, the party 
reaches an open space beyond the banana 
groves, where at last Hannington sees his 
225 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



men, not, as he expected, with their loads, 
nor carrying their guns and full of spirits 
at the thought of once more being on the 
road, but all bound, some with a heavy- 
forked branch round their necks, and many 
with their hands tied behind their backs. 
They now see their master led into the open 
where they are. He seems wonderfully 
calm and turns as if to sit down but this is 
not allowed. A gun is fired, and Hanning- 
ton's guards begin to strip him of his cloth- 
ing. He is quite passive in their hands. 
He has commended his soul to Him who sits 
above kings. 'Tell the king,' he is re- 
ported to have said, 'that I die for Uganda. 
I have bought this road with my life. ' 

"They had now forced him to his knees. 
Then the spears are flung into that heart 
which had overflowed with such fervent 
love for his murderers and their race. The 
warriors with a wild cry now spring upon 
the defenseless porters, and soon the fright- 
ful butchery is accomplished; and then, as 
if half fearing what they had done, the 
226 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

army of the Busoga and Waganda murder- 
ers hurries away, leaving the dead lying 
where they had fallen. Night draws her 
curtain over the scene, and when the moon 
comes out, she shines peacefully upon the 
seeming sleepers." 

For several weeks after the tragedy was 
past, the missionaries in Uganda receiving 
conflicting reports about what had hap- 
pened, lived with a faint hope that the 
bishop was still alive. If he had been mur- 
dered, they expected that any day they them- 
selves, like their bishop, would be sum- 
moned forth to die; yet they quietly went 
about their usual work as if nothing had 
happened. Although the missionaries knew 
it not, day after day, the king and chiefs as- 
sembled to discuss the question whether or 
not Mr. Ashe, Mr. O 'Flaherty, and Mr. 
Mackay should be killed. At last the dread 
decision was made, Mwanga's word was 
given. The three Englishmen must die. ' 

The king's chief storekeeper, however, 
being a Christian, quietly sent word 
227 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



to the missionaries suggesting that they 
send a present to the king. Nalumasi, a 
Christian princess, one of Mwanga 's sisters, 
also sent word warning them that if ever 
they needed to gain the good will of Mwanga 
it was then. The Koman Catholic priests 
also sent messengers to say that there was 
no longer a doubt about the bishop's mur- 
der, and that Mwanga had determined to 
kill Mr. Ashe, Mr. O 'Flaherty, and Mr. 
Mackay, too. 

So the missionaries gathered together 
about twenty loads of their most valuable 
possessions and sent them as presents to the 
king, the katikiro, and one of the most im- 
portant chiefs. The next morning a large 
band of pages came to the mission with the 
command from the king for Mackay to go at 
once to the palace. iWhat did it mean? 
Was there some new danger to face? The 
missionaries knelt to pray. Then manfully 
Mr. Ashe and Mr. Mackay went before the 
king. 

The conversation opened by Mwanga 's 
228 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

saying: "What is the meaning of the pres- 
ent you sent me?" 

"For friendship," answered Mackay. 

"Have I 'eaten Uganda' only to-day 
(Have I come to the throne to-day) ? Why 
give it to me now, and not long ago?" 

Some talk followed concerning a gun 
Mackay had been repairing. Then Mwanga 
returned to his first question. "Well now, 
the present, what is it for?" 

"We thought you were angry with us, be- 
cause when we came to see you, you refused 
to see us," was Mackay 's reply. 

"Yes," broke in one of the chiefs, "they 
sent me a present, and the katikiro also, be- 
cause they think we can influence the king. 
They think we want to kill them, and they 
wish to redeem their lives. What danger 
are they in? Do we kill guests ?" 

Mr. Mackay, turning to him, merely said, 
"Why, then, did you send back to say your 
present was not large enough, and to tell us 
to send you more?" 

At this the others smiled a little and the 
229 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



chief had nothing more to say. Yet they 
all began to rail on the two white men. 

At last Mackay said, "Have we done 
wrong to give the king a present ? " It was 
a telling question and again they were si- 
lent. 

Then Mr. Ashe spoke: "You all know 
why we sent it. We want to hear about our 
brother." 

"Who told you about your brother?" 
every one cried. 

"Does not all Uganda know it?" 

"Oh, do all Uganda go to your place?" 

Then the king, turning to one of the 
chiefs, said, "Question them exceedingly." 

So the two men were mercilessly plied 
with questions. The king wanted the names 
of the men who had told them of the plot. 
The missionaries refused to give any names. 
The chiefs grew angry. The king called the 
white men "bagivagwa," the most insulting 
name in the Luganda language. The more 
quiet the missionaries were, the more angry 
grew the king and chiefs. 
230 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

"What if I kill you?" cried Mwanga, 
"What would Queeni (the Queen) do ? Was 
she able to touch Lukonge or Mirambo when 
they killed white men ? What could she do, 
or all Europe together? How could they 
come would they fly?" 

This mocking and jeering and taunting 
continued for more than two hours until the 
missionaries were thoroughly worn out. 

Mwanga made the threat that he would 
arrest and kill the white men if any Wa- 
ganda were found on their premises, 
whether the white men knew it or not, and 
the "readers" also would lose their lives. 

Then suddenly he called an attendant and 
cried, "Take these white men and give them 
two cows to quiet their minds," and with a 
wave of his hand he dismissed the court. 
Mr. Mackay and Mr. Ashe returned to their 
home thankful to God that he had given 
them strength to be true to him in the midst 
of such trying conditions. 

That very night, regardless of Mwanga 's 
threat; word came to the missionaries from 
231 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



a group of Christians gathered in the home 
of Nua, the head blacksmith for the king, 
saying that five persons wanted to be bap- 
tized. One of these five men was Gabunga, 
the admiral of the king's fleet of canoes on 
Victoria Lake. ' * So it is, and ever will be, ' ' 
wrote Mr. Mackay, "some will press into 
the kingdom in times of the greatest trial." 

For about six months there was a lull in 
the storm. At this time of quiet Mr. 
O 'Flaherty received permission from the 
king to leave the country. Worn and 
broken in health by frequent attacks of fe- 
ver, he turned his face toward the shores of 
his beloved England. While his vessel sped 
on its way northward, he breathed his last, 
and his body, like those of many home- 
ward-bound voyagers before him, found its 
resting-place in the ocean. 

Ever since Bishop Hannington's martyr- 
dom, Mwanga had acted like a criminal ever 
fearing arrest. He was too proud to admit 
his guilt, yet afraid that the white men and 
their followers would one day rob Trim of 
232 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

his kingdom. As long as he was willing 
to listen to some show of reason, the fact 
that the number of Christians had grown so 
large restrained him from ordering their 
wholesale massacre. Indeed, the katikiro 
had advised Mwanga to kill all who had 
learned to read ; but the king said that all his 
pages, guards, and servants were " readers," 
that about five hundred men and boys and as 
many women and girls went to the English- 
men to learn, and about the same number to 
the Frenchmen. If he killed them all at 
once, he would be accused of killing the 
whole country ; therefore, he would kill them 
a few at a time. 

A number of events, each small in itself, 
served to stir up Mwanga 's illtemper until 
all the evil of the boy-tyrant 's nature seemed 
to break loose in a furious passion for mur- 
der. One bold lad, Balikudembe, formerly 
a pupil of Mackay's, dared to accuse his 
majesty of wrong-doing in killing the 
bishop, since the white men were the coun- 
try's friends. 

233 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



"This fellow has insulted me," angrily 
cried Mwanga, and ordered that Baliku- 
dembe be burned alive. 

The executioner, a friend of the boy, 
thought to delay in carrying out the sen- 
tence; but the katikiro, who hated Baliku- 
dembe because he was a Christian, sent word 
to the executioner to kill the fellow at once, 
before the king had time to repent. 
Mwanga did repent afterward, and sent 
word to make the boy merely a pris- 
oner. But it was too late. Brave Baliku- 
dembe had already gone where wicked 
rulers cease troubling. 

Other events helped to irritate the al- 
ready unhappy king. His straw-built hut, 
in which he kept his stores of gunpowder, 
caught fire, and a high wind carried the 
masses of blazing grass hither and yon 
among the other royal houses of the enclos- 
ure until his entire palace grounds had be- 
come a heap of ashes. He fled to the house 
of the katikiro only to have it shortly 
struck by lightning. Mwanga, crazed with 
234 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

fear, thought that the god of lightning was 
his enemy and that he had been bewitched 
by the white men. Surely they had set fire 
to his stores of gunpowder, so that when 
the English army marched against his capi- 
tal, he would have nothing with which to 
fight. 

About this time, Mwanga ordered the mis- 
sion boat to be brought to a certain place; 
in case Mackay obeyed the king, the execu- 
tioner was ordered to be in waiting to put 
him to death. For once even the katikiro 
proved to be a friend of the white man. 
Through his timely warning, Mackay was 
enabled to escape the plot of the king and 
executioner. 

From time to time disturbing reports 
reached the missionaries. Now it was the 
Uganda Christians who were to be seized; 
again it was the mission property which 
was to be plundered; sometimes their own 
lives were threatened. Mackay and Ashe 
lived and worked on not knowing when ru- 
mors might become realities. 
235 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



May twenty-sixth, 1886, was bright of sky 
but dark of deed. Mr. Ashe with a company 
of " readers " about him, was seated on the 
porch at the back of the mission house. 
They had just been singing, 

"All the people bow before Thee, 
Thou the Ruler of the heavens," 

when Mackay appeared suddenly. Speak- 
ing in English to Mr. Ashe, he said, "At 
last it is really true. I have just heard that 
Mwanga has gone mad and given orders to 
seize all the Christians." 

" Escape quickly lest they search our 
place," said Mr. Ashe to the boys in Lu- 
ganda; and skipping through a hole in the 
back fence, all the pupils soon disappeared. 
Scarcely had they gone, when an officer of 
the king arrived with a company of armed 
men in search for "readers," but none were 
found. 

One of the Mwanga 's own sisters had been 
bold enough to burn up her magic charms 
and ancestral relics. "The rebellion is 
236 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

spreading even into my own household," 
thought Mwanga, "I must act quickly." 
Soon by his command, so it was reported to 
the missionaries, seventy of the leading 
Christians were imprisoned. 

One man, Alexandro by name, on hearing 
that his fellow Christians were being ar- 
rested, went boldly to the king's court as 
usual. "I myself am a Christian," was his 
sturdy reply to the executioner's question 
if any " readers" were hidden in his enclos- 
ure. Upon this faithful confession, Alex- 
andro, too, was thrown into prison. 

Two Christian young men, one Apolo 
Kagwa by name, were called into the king's 
presence. In a fit of madness, Mwanga 
himself attacked one of them, gashing his 
body fearfully with a spear, the suffering 
man then being hurried off to the execu- 
tioner. 

Turning to Apolo Kagwa, Mwanga cried, 
' l Are you a reader ? ' ' 

"I read, my lord," was the heroic reply. 

"Then I'll teach you to read!" and thus 
237 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



shouting, the furious king, with spear in 
hand, wounded and bruised the body of the 
faithful Christian. Yet Kagwa's life was 
spared. 

While "readers" were being hunted like 
wild beasts, many of them fled to distant 
provinces. Some refused to hide, lest their 
enemies might accuse them of being cow- 
ards. One such was Roberto, who had been 
accustomed almost daily to come to the mis- 
sion. Mackay knew him well, since to- 
gether they had made several trips to and 
from the southern end of the lake. 

As Roberto with a group of boys about 
him was one day enjoying a quiet prayer- 
meeting, he was surprised to discover two 
or three executioners standing outside the 
door of his hut. Immediately, all his boys 
except one bolted through the reed partition 
wall and escaped. A gun was leaning 
against the door, and seeing this the execu- 
tioners hesitated to enter. 

"Do not be afraid that I will shoot," said 
Roberto, "come in and take me." 
238 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

Binding him and the one boy with him, 
the executioners dragged the two before the 
king. 

"Do you read?" asked his majesty. 

"Yes." 

"Take him and roast him," was the ty- 
rant's fiendish reply. 

The boy's life was redeemed by friends 
who gave the king in return a woman and a 
cow. Roberto was kept in the stocks for a 
few days, and then was led forth to his 
death. His bleeding body, mercilessly 
mangled with the sword, was thrown into 
the flames. 

Another who refused to flee was Nua, 
head blacksmith to the king. While labor- 
ing with Mackay over the coffin for Mu- 
tesa's mother, he had become a friend of 
the white man. Later, Nua became a Chris- 
tian and indeed an elder in the Waganda 
church. In times of peril, he had faithfully 
invited the Christians to gather in his home. 
On hearing of the arrests, he hurried his 
wife and children and two or three Chris- 
239 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



tian boys who had been living with him off 
to a place of hiding. For himself, he re- 
fused to flee, and of course was arrested. 

While bound hand and foot in prison, he 
pleaded with the executioners to become 
Christians. Noticing among those who were 
imprisoned with him one who had been ar- 
rested for cattle-stealing, Nua asked the 
executioner not to kill the cattle-steal er 
along with the Christians. The matter was 
reported to Mwanga, and the cattle-stealer 
was pardoned; but Nua and his Christian 
companions were burned alive. 

The day after the arrest of the seventy 
Christians, the alarming report reached the 
missionaries that their houses were to be 
plundered. All the white men's Waganda 
servants and boys were immediately dis- 
missed, and Mr. Mackay and Mr. Ashe were 
left alone in their enclosure. To them it 
was indeed a dark day. 

"What anguish of soul we have experi- 
enced," wrote Mr. Mackay, "no words can 
express. Let some of our friends at home 
240 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

fancy themselves exchanging places with us, 
and seeing their friends, with whom they 
yesterday talked and ate and prayed, to-day 
ruthlessly seized and hacked to pieces al- 
most before their eyes, and their members 
left lying to decay by the roadside." 

"Something must be done," they said. 
"We must at least make an attempt to save 
the lives of those who are imprisoned but 
not yet killed." 

So, as soon as possible, Mackay hurried 
to Mwanga's court. On being presented to 
the king, he reminded his majesty that, for 
a piece of work the missionary had previ- 
ously done, Mwanga had promised to give 
him anything he would like. 

The king graciously renewed the promise 
and asked, "What do you want 1 ?" 

"I want the lives of the people whom you 
have seized and not yet killed." 

Mwanga, somewhat taken back by this re- 
quest, tried to excuse himself from keeping 
the promise by saying, "But they are al- 
ready all dead." 

241 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



"No," said Mackay, " there are many still 
alive." 

"Well, there may be five or six or even 
ten," said Mwanga, "they shall not be 
killed." 

Mackay begged that the executioner be 
summoned at once and given the new order. 
This was not done, however, the king insist- 
ing that he had already given orders to 
spare several, and all the others were dead. 

But Mwanga 's promises were worthless. 
Only a few days later, thirty-two of the im- 
prisoned Christians were killed, having 
been thrown together in one great pile and 
burned alive. After the deed was done, the 
head executioner said to Mwanga that he 
had never before killed men who showed 
such bravery and calmness in the face of 
death. 

"In the fire, they even prayed aloud to 
God," he said. 

During the weeks and months which fol- 
lowed, the missionaries' headquarters were 
watched by the executioners. More "read- 
242 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

ers" were captured and killed; and scores 
and even hundreds went into hiding. The 
missionaries saw little of their Waganda 
friends. Occasionally they would be awak- 
ened in the middle of the night by one or 
two of the bolder Christians who under the 
cover of darkness would venture out. 

Strange to say, at this most dangerous 
time, some even asked for baptism. One of 
these was a pupil of Roberto, the Chris- 
tian who refused to protect himself by us- 
ing his gun. Mr. Ashe being the preacher, 
the boy went to him and said, "My friend, 
I wish to be baptized." 

"Do you know what you are asking?" 
Mr. Ashe said in surprise. 

"I know, my friend." 

"But you know that if you say you are a 
Christian they will kill you?" 

Again the boy answered the same words, 
"I know, my friend." 

"But suppose people ask you if you are 
a reader, will you tell a lie and deny it and 
say 'No?' " 

243 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



"I shall confess, my friend." 

Mr. Mackay and Mr. Ashe, having known 
the boy for some time and believing him to 
be a true Christian, consented to his bap- 
tism. 

At three o'clock one morning, while it was 
still very dark, Mr. Ashe was awakened by 
a low knocking at his door. Arising and 
lighting his lamp, he recognized almost half 
a dozen Christian men standing in front of 
the house, and he invited them in. One of 
them, Samweli by name, was in great trou- 
ble and had come to ask advice. Since he 
was among the best known of the Chris- 
tians, he had been hunted most carefully by 
the executioners. Being away in a distant 
province, gathering tribute for the king, he 
had escaped. But now he had returned. 
His companions had urged him to flee, but 
he could not feel that it was right for him 
not to deliver the tribute of cowry-shells to 
the king; yet to show himself at the palace 
would mean almost certain death. What 
was he to do *? 

244 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

Mr. Ashe's advice was soon given. He 
said, "The king has not the heart of a man, 
but of a wild beast, and you are not bound 
to submit yourself to one who is so vile a 
murderer. You are perfectly justified in 
forsaking the trust. ' ' 

They stepped over to Mr. Mackay's shop 
and he, too, advised Samweli to flee. But 
the heroic "Waganda Christian was not sat- 
isfied. For some time he sat on the earthen 
floor of the room looking much troubled. 
Finally he asked for a pencil and paper and 
bent over as if to write. 

"You need not write; but tell me what 
you think, ' ' said Mr. Ashe. 

Then, looking up, he said to the mission- 
ary, "My friend, I cannot leave the things 
of the king." 

His companions began to try to show him 
the folly of his decision, but Mr. Ashe said, 
"No, he is right; he has spoken well; he 
must take the tribute." 

After kneeling together in prayer, they 
planned that Samweli should deliver the 
245 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



cowry-shells to the appointed chief very 
early in the morning, and perhaps the exe- 
cutioners would not yet be abroad in search 
of Christians. When Samweli said good-by 
to the missionaries, they had little hope of 
seeing his face again. How thankful they 
were when at nightfall, he appeared once 
more at the mission, happy because he had 
done his duty, even though at the risk of 
life itself. 

Late one night in June, two Christians, 
one of them for the third time fleeing for 
his life, visited the mission. To these men, 
Mr. Mackay and Mr. Ashe gave a letter 
which they had written for circulation 
among the Christians in hiding. Like some 
of Paul's letters to his persecuted follow- 
ers, how it must have cheered many a lonely 
convert ! It read : 

" PEOPLE OF JESUS WHO ARE IN UGANDA 

"Our Friends: We, your friends and 

teachers, write to you to send you words of 

cheer and comfort, which we have taken 

from the Epistle of Peter, the apostle of 

246 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

Christ. In days of old, Christians were 
hated, were hunted, were driven out, and 
were persecuted for Jesus' sake; and thus 
it is to-day. 

"Our beloved brethren, do not deny our 
Lord Jesus, and he will not deny you on 
that great day when he shall come with 
glory. Remember the words of our Sav- 
iour, how he told his disciples not to fear 
men, who are able to kill only the body ; but 
he bade them to fear God, who is able to 
destroy the body together with the soul. 

"Do not cease to pray exceedingly, and 
to pray for our brothers who are in afflic- 
tion, and for those who do not know God. 
May God give you his Spirit and his bless- 
ing ! May he deliver you out of all your af- 
flictions! May he give you entrance to 
eternal life through Jesus Christ our Sav- 
iour! 

"Farewell. We are the white men; we 
are your brothers indeed who have written 
to you." 

On the other side of the letter was writ- 
247 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



ten the fourth chapter of the First Letter 
of Peter, from the twelfth verse to the end 
of the chapter. 

So in Uganda the native Christians, not 
long since degraded heathen, were now suf- 
fering torment and death rather than deny 
their Lord and Saviour. In all, about two 
hundred Protestant and Roman Catholic 
converts were brought to a cruel martyr- 
dom, and probably more than that number 
were made exiles from their homes. 

It was in like manner that centuries ago, 
in the days of Nero at Rome, the early 
Christians suffered. So some of our own 
forefathers were burned at the stake. So 
in later years the Christian churches in 
Madagascar, the Hawaiian Islands, Japan, 
and China have added to the noble company 
of martyrs. 

Like the faithful heroes told of in the 
eleventh chapter of Hebrews, they were 
" tortured, not accepting their deliverance; 
that they might obtain a better resurrection : 
and others had trial of mockings and 
248 



STURDY BLACK CHRISTIANS 

scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and im- 
prisonment: they were stoned, they were 
sawn asunder, they were tempted, they were 
slain with the sword: . . . being desti- 
tute, afflicted, ill-treated, (of whom the 
world was not worthy), wandering in 
deserts and mountains and caves, and the 
holes of the earth." "But now they desire 
a better country, that is, a heavenly : where- 
fore God is not ashamed of them, to be 
called their God; for he hath prepared for 
them a city." 



249 



CHAPTER XII 

THE WHITE MAN OF WORK LAYS DOWN HIS 
TOOLS 

ONCE more there was a period of com- 
parative quiet in Uganda. Another 
of the white men left for England. In- 
deed, Mr. Ashe and Mr. Mackay had both 
asked permission to go. This was not be- 
cause of any thought of abandoning their 
work nor because of any fear of death. 
But it was thought that perhaps through 
their temporary absence the persecutions 
of the Christians might cease. Then being 
again quiet in mind, Mwanga might with 
real heartiness invite the missionaries to re- 
turn to his capital. 

After many discussions at court, his 
black majesty finally consented that Mr. 
Ashe should leave, but not so Mr. Mackay, 
250 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

for whom the king pretended to have a 
most remarkable affection. So Mr. Mackay 
bade farewell to his long-time companion, 
and for nearly a year held the fort in 
Uganda alone. 

Notwithstanding the edict that all who 
dared to go to the mission would be put to 
death, large numbers of "readers" stole 
away unnoticed to the white man's house. 
Several months after Mr. Ashe left, Mr. 
Mackay wrote: 

"For a couple of months after you left I 
was having a regular houseful of strangers 
every evening. The tin of petroleum ar- 
rived in time, and with it I could make a 
respectable light, so that the library became 
a night-school. Late, late, often very late, 
we wound up, and I was often more than 
exhausted reading, teaching, giving medi- 
cine, and doing other work. By day I got, 
off and on, some translation done." 

In addition to his teaching and doctoring, 
the "white man of work" undertook to con- 
struct a spinning-wheel and weaver's loom 
251 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



so that the Waganda might learn to spin 
and to weave their own cloth. 

When the royal mechanics had all failed, 
Mackay was asked to mount a huge flagstaff 
in the king's enclosure. Very awkward 
helpers they were who aided him, and it was 
only after many days of patient labor that 
the polt slipped into the hole dug for it, and 
stood up tall and firm, to the astonishment 
and delight of the king and chiefs. 

Whenever time could be spared, Mackay 
labored on the translation and printing of 
the Gospel of Matthew. In a few months 
the first edition of one hundred and fifty 
copies came from the press, and the eager 
Christians were able to read for themselves 
the precious stories of the Christ ; his com- 
ing as a babe in Bethlehem, his teachings on 
the Mount, his miracles, his parables, and 
finally his sufferings, death, and resurrec- 
tion. 

But such events as these came only occa- 
sionally to brighten Mackay 's life. For the 
most part the shadows far outnumbered the 
252 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

bright spots throughout that year of loneli- 
ness. Again and again plots were laid for 
his life; and since the fickle Mwanga could 
never be trusted, much of Mackay's work 
had to be done in secret. In dangers oft 
and trials ever, how hard it must have been 
to keep brave and cheerful! In a letter 
written about this time Mackay said : 

"What sadness and melancholy comes 
over me at times, and I find myself shed- 
ding tears like a child! Then those won- 
derfully consoling Psalms send a thrill of 
joy into my whole being. 

"I have not the slightest desire to l es- 
cape, ' if I can do a particle of good by stay- 
ing. My desire is that the Lord will open 
the way for the mission to be kept up, not 
abandoned. Our ship is in port, some 
twelve miles off, and possibly I might make 
a -dash for it ; but what then ? I do not at 
present see that I am warranted in seeking 
to do so. Anything may happen at any mo- 
ment, and it may be that I shall be led to 
adopt such a course; but hitherto I believe 
253 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



I am doing right in quietly going on with 
the work. My earnest heart-wish is simply 
to cast myself on the Master, and say, 'Thy 
will be done!'" 

For a time Mwanga pretended to be a 
Mohammedan, and ordered all his pages to 
read the Koran. On the refusal of a num- 
ber to obey his orders, Mwanga complained 
that all those who read with the white men 
were stubborn and compelled him to be ever 
killing them, so that people would call him a 
madman! He threatened to "kill very 
many." But his queenmother, although a 
heathen, warned him against putting his 
pages to death; since, she said, in a few 
years they would be the chief strength of 
his country. 

Now that Mackay was alone, his old 
enemies, the Arabs, redoubled their efforts 
to drive him from the country. Again and 
again they slandered his character before 
Mwanga. When a letter, written in 
Arabic, came from the English consul in 
Zanzibar, they mistranslated it to the king, 
254 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

so that it read that the consul advised 
Mwanga to drive Mackay out of the country 
at once. The king hesitated, not knowing 
which to believe, the Arabs or Mackay. 
Now, he seemed to favor Mackay 's leaving; 
again, he refused his permission. The 
strain of uncertainty lasted several weeks, 
but Mackay waited in patience. 

Finally the king definitely declared: "I 
will not have his teaching in the country 
while I live. After I am dead the people 
may learn to read." 

Mackay did not leave, however, until he 
gained a promise from the king to send a 
native messenger along with him in the 
boat, so that, on the return trip of the ship, 
another Englishman might be brought to 
Uganda to take Mackay 's place. 

So one day in the summer of 1887, 
Mackay bade farewell to his Uganda home, 
and to the great heathen capital and its 
king, locked up the mission houses, and 
started for the port. 

Good-by gifts were given back and forth 
255 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



between Mwanga, the chiefs, and Mackay; 
and the Waganda Christians called to have 
their last words with the white man. For 
nine years he had been to some of them a 
faithful friend and father, and it was hard 
for them to let him go. 

Not long, however, were the persecuted 
Waganda Christians left alone. The boat 
that carried Mr. Mackay to the southern 
end of the lake brought Mr. Gordon, a 
nephew of Bishop Hannington, to take his 
place. Mr. Gordon was soon joined by Mr. 
Walker, and these two brave men persist- 
ently kept the work moving forward. 

Within about a year's time two revolu- 
tions occurred in Uganda. Mwanga 's 
cruelties grew so loathsome to his subjects 
that they arose in a body and dethroned 
him, placing his brother, Kalema, on the 
throne in his stead. Under the new mon- 
arch, Roman Catholic and Protestant 
Christians were given the chief offices of 
the kingdom, and, for a while, "readers" 
flocked to the mission like "swarms of 
256 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

bees." The jealousy of the Arabs, how- 
ever, was not long in being stirred. They 
headed a second revolution. A new king 
was put on the throne, and the important 
chieftainships given to Mohammedans. 

For six days both the French and English 
missionaries were imprisoned in a filthy hut 
within the king's enclosure. The furious 
Mohammedan mob robbed the Protestant 
mission of every article of furniture, beds, 
tables, chairs, book-cases, boxes, everything. 
" Every book was torn to bits," and every 
bottle of medicine was smashed or emptied 
of its contents. Doors were wrenched from 
their hinges and carried away, and the mis- 
sion house left a desolate wreck. 

The French priests and Protestant mis- 
sionaries were together put on board the 
white man's ship, no food, almost no cloth- 
ing, and no bedding being allowed for their 
voyage to the southern end of the lake. 
Mr. Walker was even robbed of his hat, 
coat, and trousers before starting, and the 
only two books he had saved, his New Tes- 
257 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



tament and prayer-book, were snatched 
from him and thrown into the lake. 

"The captain carried us on board," wrote 
Mr. Gordon, "and we heard the voice of the 
officer behind us. He was giving us 
Uganda's parting message. 'Let no white 
man come to Uganda for the space of two 
years. "We do not want to see Mackay's 
boat in Uganda waters for a long time to 
come. "We do not want to see a white 
teacher back again in Uganda until we have 
converted the whole of Uganda to the Mo- 
hammedan faith'." 

While revolutions and fanatical out- 
bursts were taking place in Uganda, 
Mackay was beginning missionary work 
anew at a place called Usambiro, near the 
southern shore of Victoria Lake. 

About seventy miles to the eastward, a 
wretched fugitive, having escaped from 
Uganda in a canoe with perhaps half a dozen 
companions, was the cruel, despised Mwan- 
ga. Eegardless of the unspeakable wrongs 
this tyrant had committed against him and 
258 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

against so many whom he loved, the earnest, 
forgiving missionary now wrote and offered 
the ruined king a refuge with him in Usam- 
biro. 

" Murderer and persecutor as he has 
been," wrote Mr. Mackay, "I yet have not 
the faintest doubt that it becomes us to do 
everything in our power to return him good 
for evil." 

Mwanga, fearing the Arabs, felt at the 
time unable to escape. He implored 
Mackay to come to him to deliver him, but 
this the missionary could not do. Some 
months later, Mwanga fled to the Catholic 
mission where he was soon baptized. By a 
third revolution in Uganda, he was later 
restored to his throne, and the chieftain- 
ships were divided equally between the 
Christians and Arabs; but Mwanga was as 
Samson with his hair shorn. Never again 
did he gain his old power. He became little 
more than a puppet in the hands of his 
chiefs, and at his death no one could say 
that he had ever shown any certain signs 
259 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



that he had become a real heart-Christian. 

In the meantime, what was Mackay doing 
at TJsambiro'? When the Waganda Chris- 
tians were exiled from their country, some 
twenty-five of them fled to Mackay. With 
their assistance, he built a neat five-room 
house for himself and the two or three other 
white men who sometimes were with him. 
Workshops, houses for his boys, buildings 
for his chickens, goats, and cattle, and a 
garden where he could raise vegetables were 
other results of their industry. Finally, 
the entire grounds, when enclosed by a neat 
grass fence, became an attractive homelike 
spot in the midst of a barren, dry, and tree- 
less waste. 

Even when driven from Uganda, Mackay 
did not cease to toil for the land he had long 
since called his own. He directed his ex- 
iled Christians in the use of the printing- 
press, and many pages of Scripture verses, 
prayers, and hymns from time to time were 
sent to Uganda. Then, too, with the assist- 
ance of the more intelligent among the 
260 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

Christians, he began the translation of the 
Gospel according to St. John. 

For years it had been his ambition to 
build a good steam launch for the use of 
the missionaries on Victoria Lake. Indeed, 
on first coming to Africa he brought with 
him a steam-boiler and engine, but he had 
never succeeded in gaining Mutesa's or 
Mwanga's permission to build the boat. 
Now, at last he was able to begin. Writing 
home, he said: 

"I have my hands full, preparing to 
build our new boat. I have cut the timber 
some twenty miles distant, and have carried 
it here. You will be probably disgusted at 
hearing that I am busy just now making 
bricks to build a house in which to build the 
vessel. Within the last fortnight we have 
made some ten thousand. That is doubt- 
less poor work to be occupied with in the 
mission field, but it must be done ; and even 
in such a humble occupation I hope the 
good Lord will not withhold his blessing. 
Mission boats unfortunately do not grow 
261 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



of themselves they have to be built, every 
inch of them. But trees have been growing 
for ages, of the Lord's planting; and as we 
fell them, I like to think that he made them 
grow for this purpose." 

A little later he wrote again: "I have 
just received seventy loads of rivets, fit- 
tings, rope, paint, and other material, for 
this vessel, for which I am collecting the 
needed timber. Some time ago I wrote you 
of my felling trees in the forest some ten to 
twenty miles distant. The problem then 
was to have these conveyed to this station. 
I found that the logs were too heavy either 
to drag or to have carried by all the men I 
could muster. I therefore set to work and 
made a strong four-wheeled wagon with 
which to fetch the logs entire here. This 
has proved quite a success, and already we 
have dragged a log weighing a ton and a 
half to this place with no difficulty. It is 
the first wheeled vehicle ever seen in this 
region since the world began, with the ex- 
ception of an iron wheelbarrow which was 
262 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

used in the building of the Suez Canal, and 
was shipped over here. This wheelbarrow 
has proved a marvel to the natives ; but the 
ease with which our wagon rolls along with 
a large log on the top of it, is a far greater 
wonder still." 

It was in August, 1889, the last summer 
of Mackay 's life. Mr. Stanley happened to 
be returning to the coast, having rescued an 
English governor who had long been held a 
prisoner in Central Africa. Passing by 
Mackay's mission, he and his company re- 
mained with the missionary nearly a month. 
Stanley's story of his visit gives a picture 
of the kind of life Mackay was living. 

"The next day," says Mr. Stanley, " hav- 
ing already sent messages ahead, that we 
might not take Mr. Mackay by surprise, we 
arrived in view of the English mission. It 
was built in the middle of what appeared to 
be no better than a gray waste. The 
ground gently sloped from curious heaps of 
big boulders, or enormous blocks thrown 
higgeledy-piggledy to the height of a respec- 
263 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



table hill, down to a marshy flat, green with 
its dense crop of papyrus. Beyond this we 
saw a gleam of a line of water, produced 
from an inlet of Victoria Lake. We were 
approaching the mission by a wagon track, 
and presently we came to the wagon itself, 
a simple thing of wooden wheels, for carry- 
ing timber for building. There was not a 
green thing in view, except in the marsh; 
grass all dead, trees either shrunk, with- 
ered, or dead, at least there was not the 
promise of a bud anywhere, which of course 
was entirely due to the dry season. 

"When we were about half a mile off, 
a gentleman of small stature, with brown 
hair, dressed in white linen and a gray hat, 
advanced to meet us. 

" 'And so you are Mr. Mackay ? Mwanga 
did not get you then, this time ? What ex- 
periences you must have had with that man ! 
But you look so well, one would say you had 
been to England lately/ 

" 'Oh, no; this is my twelfth year. 
Mwanga permitted me to leave, and the 
264 




TALKING THUS, WE ENTERED THE CIRCLE OF TALL POLES 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

Rev. Cyril Gordon took my place; but not 
for long, since they were all shortly after 
expelled from Uganda.'' 

"Talking thus, we entered the circle of 
tall poles, within which the mission station 
was built. There were signs of labor, and 
constant unwearying patience and sweating 
under a hot sun. We saw that Mackay was 
determined to do something to keep the 
mind employed, and never to let idleness 
find him with folded hands brooding over 
the unloveliness. 

" There was a big, solid workshop in the 
yard, filled with machinery and tools, a 
launch's boiler was being prepared by the 
blacksmiths, a big canoe was outside repair- 
ing; there were sawpits and large logs of 
hard timber; there were great stacks of 
palisade poles; in the corner of an outer 
yard was a cattle-fold and a goat-pen, fowls 
by the score pecked at minute grains; 
and out of the European quarter there 
trooped out a number of little boys and 
big boys, looking uncommonly sleek and 
265 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



happy; and quiet laborers came up to bid 
us, with hats off, i Good morning ! ' 

"I was ushered into the room of a sub- 
stantial clay structure, the walls about two 
feet thick, evenly plastered, and garnished 
with missionary pictures. 

" There were four separate ranges of 
shelves filled with choice, useful books. 
'Allah ho Akbar,' replied Hassan, his Zan- 
zibar head-man, to me; 'books! Mackay has 
thousands of books, in the dining-room, bed- 
room, the church, everywhere. Books! ah, 
loads upon loads of them!' And while I 
was sipping real coffee, and eating home- 
made bread and butter for the first time for 
thirty months, I thoroughly sympathized 
with Mackay 's love of books. It becomes 
quite clear why, among so many books and 
children and out-door work, Mackay cannot 
find leisure to brood and think of being 
lonely. He has no time to fret and groan 
and weep, and God knows if ever man had 
reason to be doleful and lonely and sad, 
Mackay had, when, after murdering his 
266 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

bishop, and burning his pupils, and strang- 
ling his converts, and clubbing to death his 
dark friends, Mwanga turned his eye of 
death on him. And yet the little man met 
it with calm blue eyes that never winked. 
It is worth going a long journey to see one 
man of this kind, working day after day 
for twelve hours bravely, and without a syl- 
lable of complaint or a moan, and to hear 
him lead his little flock in singing and 
prayer to show forth God's kindness in the 
morning, and his faithfulness every night." 

Stanley and his officers urged Mackay to 
return home with them; the Church Mis- 
sionary Society secretaries, time after time, 
had invited him to return to England; his 
friends wrote letters begging him to come 
home for a rest; but the faithful Christian 
soldier refused to leave his post until more 
men were sent to carry on the work in his 
absence. 

At last, only a few months later, his sum- 
mons to rest came from his Lord in heaven. 
His only white companion in Usambiro, Mr. 
267 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



Deekes, was preparing to return to England 
because of ill health. The day of his de- 
parture came. He and his men had risen 
early and all the packing which was still to 
be done was completed by sunrise, and they 
were ready to start on the long march to the 
coast. 

But where was Mr. Mackay ? Could it be 
that he was sleeping while the others within 
the enclosure were up and busy helping the 
party get a good start before the scorching 
sun compelled them to halt? Mr. Mackay 
had worked hard the day before and per- 
haps he was resting unusually soundly. 
Expecting to say good-by to his faithful 
friend, Mr. Deekes entered Mackay 's room. 
When he returned to his men, he dismissed 
them and ordered all preparations for the 
march to cease, for Mackay was lying on 
his bed burning with fever. 

During the whole day his Waganda boys 

with solemn, questioning faces flitted 

quietly about, doing their necessary duties. 

No doctor was near. Mr. Deekes himself 

268 



HE LAYS DOWN HIS TOOLS 

was weak and could do little. The care of 
the sick missionary was left largely to un- 
trained Waganda Christians who did the 
best they knew to cool his fevered brow. 
During the next four days Mr. Mackay, in 
his delirium, knew not the loving black 
nurses who, in their simple way were doing 
their utmost to win their beloved teacher 
back to life ; but his spirit would not be de- 
tained. His Master called, " Enter thou 
into the joy of thy Lord," and Alexander 
Mackay was gone. 

"I had a coffin made of the wood he had 
cut for the boat," wrote Mr. Deekes, "and 
at two o'clock in the afternoon on Sunday 
I buried him by the side of the late Bishop 
Parker. The Waganda Christians and the 
boys of the village stood around the grave, 
and I began to read the burial service, but 
broke down with grief and weakness. The 
boys and Waganda Christians sang the 
hymn, 'All hail the power of Jesus' name/ 
in Luganda, and we returned to the house, 
never to forget that day." 
269 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



So it was that Africa lost the man whom 
Stanley called "the best missionary since 
Livingstone. " 



270 



DID IT PAY? 

ALEXANDER MACKAY was only 
^^- forty-one years of age when he was 
called to lay aside his life-work. When a 
young man he might have turned a deaf ear 
to Stanley's urgent call from Central Africa 
and remained in merry England, where 
fever is as little to be feared as are lions and 
rhinoceri. Had he done so, who knows but 
that he might have lived out a long life of 
twice forty-one years. 

He might have continued his work in 
Germany, perhaps coming to be a famous 
engineer or inventor. Having been offered 
a position with good opportunities for pro- 
motion in the service of the Imperial East 
Africa Company, he might have become a 
prosperous business man. General Gordon 
had wanted him as an important officer in 
271 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



his army in Egypt. Had lie accepted the 
offer, perhaps he might have ended his life 
as one of Great Britain's well-known com- 
manders. Instead, he died in the prime of 
life a missionary in remote Central 
Africa. 

Fourteen years in Africa had brought to 
Mr. Mackay the knottiest of problems and 
hardships untold. During all this time, 
luxury was far from him, and often he 
lacked even what we regard as common 
comforts. No mother or sister or wife was 
at his side to brighten his simple home. 
Late and early, he toiled, ofttimes at tasks 
for which he had no special liking. Many 
of those whom he had so patiently taught 
and whom he had come to love as his own 
brothers, he saw sent to cruel torture and 
death. For months at a time he lived know- 
ing not when a wicked monarch might call 
for his life. 

His has not been the only promising life 
laid down for Uganda. In 1876, seven 
others besides Mackay had left their homes 
272 



DID IT PAY? 



in answer to King Mutesa's plea. During 
the years since then, scores of other young 
men and even some women, just as earnest 
and devoted to the work and to their Lord 
as Mackay, have started for the shores of 
Victoria Lake. Some have died on the 
way ; others have lived for only a short time 
in the land of their choice ; and a few have 
survived to do many years of patient serv- 
ice. But has it all been worth while ? Did 
it pay? 

It was a letter from a newspaper corre- 
spondent published in the London Tele- 
graph that first led Christian teachers to 
give their lives for Uganda. Twenty-nine 
years later another newspaper correspond- 
ent wrote a letter from Uganda's capital, 
and this was published in the London Times 
for August 11, 1904. Unlike Stanley, this 
second newspaper man had in a few days 
traveled by railroad from the east coast of 
Africa to Victoria Lake. On board a beau- 
tiful modern lake steamer, he had sailed to 
Uganda's port. He found a people gov- 
273 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



erned by a Christian king whose noble prime 
minister was Apolo Kagwa, once persecuted, 
and now one of the pillars of the Waganda 
Christian Church. He found a country un- 
der the protection of the English crown, 
ruled by just laws, and a nation wholly 
without slaves. He found that only a few 
of its citizens still brought their offerings 
to the heathen spirits, and those few seemed 
half ashamed to be thought of as believers 
in the wizards. Thousands of people, he 
found, belonged to the churches which had 
been organized all over the country. 

It was one day the privilege of this news- 
paper correspondent to see more than five 
thousand of these Waganda Christians 
gathered at the capital. His letter tells the 
story of the great occasion. 

"On the summit of Namirembe has stood 
for many years the principal Christian 
church of Uganda, a large building, the 
grass roof of which was supported by a 
very forest of palm poles. This eventually 
became unsafe, and has lately been replaced 
274 



DID IT PAY? 



by a more permanent and really beautiful 
building, which reflects great credit on Mr. 
Borup, an engineer missionary. He has 
taught the Waganda to make bricks, has in- 
structed young men in carpentry and 
other handicrafts, and has superintended 
this their first building on a large scale. 
The walls and two rows of massive columns 
are built of sun-dried bricks, while those 
used for the foundations have been burnt in 
a kiln. The roof, neatly thatched with long 
grass, rises over the transepts into three 
peaks. But the most remarkable features 
in the building are the beautiful reed-work 
which covers the ceiling and the palm stems 
that serve as beams and rafters. 

"The great event in the capital recently 
has been the consecration of this cathedral 
by Bishop Tucker. At five in the morning 
of the twenty-first of June, people were be- 
ginning to assemble in the open space 
around the church. The service was to be- 
gin at nine o'clock, but long before that hour 
every available space had been filled and the 
275 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



great building was surrounded by a large 
crowd of disappointed but cheerful and or- 
derly people who found it impossible to gain 
admission. 

"The seats were a few reserved for Eu- 
ropeans under the central dome and those 
kept for the clergy in the chancel; all the 
rest of the floor space, with the exception of 
the central aisle and well-kept passages to 
the different doorways, was completely cov- 
ered by rows of Waganda seated on the 
ground, or on skins and mats which many 
had brought with them. No undue crowd- 
ing had been allowed ; but by this method of 
seating, any given space will accommodate 
a considerably larger number of people 
than it takes where room has to be found for 
chairs or benches. Looking down from the 
chancel, the eye wandered over a sea of dark 
but by no means unattractive faces, and one 
noticed a marked contrast between the two 
sides of the church, for to the right sat the 
men in their clean, long white robes, and to 
the left the women, clad for the most part in 
276 



DID IT PAY? 



the rich brown bark cloth so characteristic 
of Uganda." 

King Daudi Chwa, Apolo Kagwa, the 
prime minister, and about fifty missionaries 
and native pastors from all parts of the 
kingdom and a vast congregation of 3,500 
within the cathedral listened reverently 
through the entire services. 

"The building of the cathedral had in- 
volved a considerable drain upon the re- 
sources of the people, and there still re- 
mained a debt of more than 2,000 rupees 
[$650]. To meet this was the object of the 
collection taken up toward the end of the 
proceedings, and a most interesting part of 
the ceremony it proved to be. Quite a little 
army of men were employed going to and 
fro with large bags and cloths, and they re- 
turned again and again to the chancel 
heavily laden with strings of cowry-shells, 
besides the more regular coinage introduced 
with British rule. These were received by 
the clergy in the basin-shaped baskets that 
figure largely in native life. Many brought 
277 



WHITE MAN OF WORK 



offerings in kind, and the English section of 
the congregation could not repress their 
smiles when the first chicken was solemnly 
carried up the aisle and deposited at the 
foot of the table, followed almost immedi- 
ately by a couple of goats which showed a 
marked objection to being dragged back and 
removed by a side door. It then appeared 
that gifts were flowing in, not only from 
the congregation proper, but from the yet 
greater crowd which had failed to gain ad- 
mission and thronged around the building 
outside all through the service. Load after 
load of offerings came through the doors, 
and many were the gifts that did not ap- 
pear within. Others arrived too late for 
the occasion, and the amount of the collec- 
tion went on growing for days afterward. 
The latest figures I could obtain were as fol- 
lows: 1,613 rupees [$538], including 
about 90,000 sheUs, and 36 bullocks and 
cows, 23 goats, 31 fowls, and 154 eggs. The 
result of this collection more than wiped off 
the debt on the church. 
278 




LOAD AFTER LOAD OF OFFERINGS CAME THROUGH THE DOORS ' 



DID IT PAY? 



"Altogether the scene described was 
never to be forgotten by an English visitor. 
Less than thirty years ago, Stanley gave to 
the king of Uganda his first lesson in the 
truths of Christianty, and then appealed for 
missionaries to carry on the work. He 
lived to see a truly marvelous change ef- 
fected by the preaching of the gospel, which 
is to-day being carried by native teachers 
and preachers far into the surrounding 
countries; and now within a few weeks of 
his death a gathering of over 5,000 Waganda 
for the consecration of a cathedral in Mu- 
tesa's capital witnesses to the force with 
which the Christian message can appeal to 
an intelligent people who have heard it for 
the first time in the present generation." 

Was it all worth while? Did it pay? 
Were the lives wasted or well invested which 
have made possible such changes in a coun- 
try once heathen? "Whosoever," said 
Jesus, "would save his life shall lose it; and 
whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and 
the gospel's shall save it." 
279 



INDEX 



Africa, 2, 31,39,83,191,218; 

Central, 27, 30, 58, 224, 
263, 272 ; 

East, 31, 224, 271; 

South, 58 
African, 

animals, 6, 8, 20, 40, 63; 

beer, 113, 133; 

birds and insects, 39, 51, 
61, 64, 174; 

boys, 87, 155-158; 

carpenter, 37 ; 

chiefs, see Chiefs; 

diseases, 42, 156, see also 
Fever; 

drums, see tom-toms be- 
low; 

flowers and plants, 39; 

huts, 21, 89, 90; 

jungles, see Jungles; 

mason, 37 ; 

missions, see Missions, 
African; 

money, 12, 33, 34; 

porters, see Baggage-car- 
riers; 

singing, 55; 



soldiers, 10, 37, 74, 75, 105, 

107, 204; 
tom-toms, 7, 20, 45, 77, 79, 

116, 132, 179 
villages, see Villages; 
wives, 20, 81, 96, 109, 159, 

164-168 

Alexandro, 237 
Allah, 139, 146, 216; 
Animals, see African animals 
American axes, 53 
Apolo Kagwa, 237, 238, 274, 

277 

Arabian, Arabs, 12, 15-34, 
74-89, 101-111, 124,140- 
152, 159, 196, 198, 254, 
257 

Ashe, Mr., 195, 200, 206-214, 
225-251 

Bagamoyo, 36 
Baggage-carriers, 34-38, 43, 

49-52 

Balikudembe, 233, 234 
Bananas, 90, 91, 105 
Baptism, baptisms, 108, 109, 

155, 243 



281 



INDEX 



Baraza, .80, 85, 96, 98, 108, 

124 
Bark cloth, 20, 32, 74, 108, 

114, 166, 181, 277 
Bead money, beads, 12,32,34 
Bellows, 32, 93 
Bible, 4, 15-19, 71, 77, 78, 

81, 104, 108, 120, 123, 

128, 148, 159, 170, 221, 

225, 246-253, 260 
Birds, see African birds 
Board books, 15 
Bolsters of baggage, 35-37 
Books, 266; 

destroyed, 257 
Borup, Mr., 275 
Boys, see African boys 
Brass wire, see Wire 
Bridges, bridge-building, 55, 

57, 58 

Burial, 180, 190-192 
of Philipo, 166 
of queep Namasole, 179>- 

190 
Burning of Christians, 216, 

217, 234, 239-242 

Calico, 12, 40, 41, 181-189 
Camps, 44, 45, 52, 59, 70, 71 
Canoes, 6, 71, 258, 265 
Capital cities, 72, 73, 85, 115, 

207, 274 

Caps, red, 32, 34, 74, 76 
Caravans, 3, 36-46, 50 



Carts, cart-barge, 58-8, 82, 

84 

Cathedral, 275-279 
Catholic, Catholics, 104, 228, 

248 
Cattle, 6, 87, 116, 146, 147, 

173, 192, 260 
Chambarango, 16 
Charms, 113, 114, 156, 160, 

161, 179, 236 
Chiefs, 9, 20, 43-45, 57, 72, 

76, 79, 89, 93, 98, 106, 

107, 122, 124, 159, 169, 
178, 179, 197, 199, 228- 
230 

Christ, see Jesus Christ 
Christian, boys or lads, 154- 
163, 204-208, 212-219, 
233, 265; 
chiefs, 213, 232; 
girls, 233; 
religion, 14-19, 104, 116, 

129, 135, 146; 
teachings, 98-104 
Christians, 5, 27, 28, 95, 104, 

108, 153-169, 233, 248, 
256 

Christmas, 101, 111, 190 
Church Missionary Society, 

22-26, 77 
secretaries, 22, 23, 29, 49, 

158 
Churches, native, 157, 158, 

220, 239-249, 274 



282 



INDEX 



Civilized people, 14 

Clark, Mr., 25 

Climate, 20, 46-52 

Cloth, 32, 34, 37, 44, 45, 101, 

192, 211, 223 
Coffee-raising, 173 
Coffins, 181 

Communion service, 204 
Converts, 248, 267, see also 

Christian, Christians 
Copper for coffin, 182-184 
Cowry-shells, 105, 136, 172, 

277 
Creed, the, 159 

Daily Telegraph, the, 1, 19, 

47, 273 

Daudi Chwa, King, 277 
Death, of native Christians, 

157, 162, 163, 166, 214- 

219, 234-243, 248; 
of missionaries, 30, 36, 82, 

84, 226, 232, 269 
Deekes, Mr., 268 
Discoveries, 27 
Diseases, see African dis- 



Doctors, Christian, 28, 66, 

90, 115, 251 

Dogs, 37, 52, 60, 63, 145 
Dreams, 6, 7, 137, 164 
Drums, see African tom-toms 
Dumulira, 156, 157 



Edinburgh, 25, 29 
Edwardo, 158 

Egypt, 3, 80, 99, 203, 272 
Elders, 220, 239 
Elephant tusks, see Ivory 
England, 3, 4, 21, 24, 49, 59, 
70, 77, 80, 90, 98, 99,110 
English, 57; 

governor, 263; 

hatchets, 53; 

language, 41, 71, 77, 97; 

missionaries, 76, 105, 106, 
110, 136, 233, 257; 

people, 87, 95, 144, 152, 
203; 

soldiers, 3, 80, 203 
Europe, European, 66, 135, 

146, 191 

Evil spirits, see Spirits, evil 
Executioners, 210, 216, 234 

Fable of a cat, 150-152 

Farming, 172, 173 

Fences of tiger grass, 74, 75, 

91, 107, 260 
Fever, 1, 42-31, 59, 83, 84, 

225, 268, 269 
Flags, flagstaff, 7, 60, 61, 

101, 252 
Food, 33, 40-43, 46, 51, 60, 

73, 84, 87, 88, 96, 105, 

116, 136, 172 
French missionaries, 104, 

105, 110, 143, 144, 149, 

228, 2S3, 257, 259 



283 



INDEX 



Gabunga, 126, 132, 232 

Germany, 26 

Germans, 203 

Gifts, 8, 79 

God, 3, 4, 13, 14, 24, 31, 56, 

69, 78, 83, 95, 100, 108, 

118-130, 142, 153, 161, 

193 
Gods, heathen, 112, 119-122, 

235 

Gold and silver, 147 
Golden Rule, 5 
Gordon, General, 80, 99, 271; 

Rev. Cyril, 256, 258, 265 
Gospels, 101, 156, 157, 221, 

252, 261 
Great Britain, 60, see also 

England, English 
Grindstones, 32, 53, 93 
Guns, gunpowder, 7, 32, 74, 

76, 101, 130, 206, 207, 

223, 226 

Hammock for traveling, 46, 

66 

Handkerchiefs, 32-34 
Hannington, Bishop, 224- 

228, 232 

Hartwell, Mr., 37 
Heathen, 10, 100; 

religion, 10-12, 105, 116, 

129, 135 
Hoes, 94 
Honga, 43-46, 58 



House of Lords, 9 

Houses, huts, 5, 21, 75, 80, 

88, 91, 147, 173-175, 186, 

225, 260, 266 

How I Found Livingstone, 29 
Human sacrifices, 190, 192, 

197 

Hutchinson, Mr., 23 
Huts, see Houses, huts 

Indian, coolies, 33 j 

merchants, 33 
Insects, see African birds and 

insects 
Interpreters, 14, 37, 41, 77, 

79, 80, 118, 119, 121, 

170, 261 
Ivory. 5, 6, 12, 17, 32, 102, 

109, 111, 147 

Jesus Christ, 14, 16, 79, 101, 
104, 147, 148, 155, 161, 
192 

Jungles, 2, 40, 43, 46, 54,84 

Kagei, 72, 84, 120 

Kakumba, 213-216 

Kalema, King, 256 

Katikiro, the, 17, 133, 165, 
192, 199, 201, 208-212, 
222, 235, see also Prime 
Minister 

Kauta, 17, 187 

Kidza, 214, 217 



284 



INDEX 



King, see Mutesa, Mwanga 
Koran, the, 16, 18, 109, 140, 

138, 193, 254 
Kyambalango, 182, 192 

Letters, 3, 4, 23-25, 29, 47, 

49, 71, 72, 77, 78, 154, 

205, 246, 267 
Litchfield, Mr., 106, 154 
Livingstone, David, 10, 270 
London, 1-3, 19, 22, 29, 77, 

273 

Lord's Prayer, the, 5, 159 
Lugalama, 213-218 
Luganda language, 81, 97, 

154, 170 
Lukonge, 72, 121, 231 

Machinery, 28, 37, 265 
Mackay, Alexander, 26-30, 
36-70, 82-279; 

boyhood, 26, 27; 

early missionary plans, 28; 

farewell words, 30; 

favorable start from Zan- 
zibar, 36, 37; 

fever and return to coast, 
42-48; 

finds more carriers, 49-51; 

finishes road, 52-58; 

flags on march inland, 60- 
66; 

gives up use of carts, 67- 
69; 

285 



hastens to Victoria Lake, 

82-85; 
is received by Mutesa, 86, 

87; 
makes many things, 93, 

170, 178, 251; 
name given him, 171; 
needs and trip to Uyui, 

136, 137, 140; 
new house built, 174, 175; 
opposed by Mohammedans, 

141-152; 
palace services and talks, 

98-110, 117-131, 190- 

194; 222, 223, 241, 242; 
pleads with Mutesa, 193; 
printing, 107, 170, 252,260; 
receives letter from first 

convert, 154, 155; 
sinking a well, 175-177; 
teaching, 170, 251; 
translating Bible, 170,251, 

252, 261; 
undertaker for queen Na- 

masole, 179-190; 
Usambiro mission, 258- 

269; 
various attacks of fever, 

and the last fatal one, 

51, 83, 84, 175, 176, 

268, 269; 
work, 170, 171, 222, 241, 

251, 252, 265; 
workshops, 93, 265 



INDEX 



Madagascar, 28 

Magic lantern, 33, 93 

Map of Africa, given Mutesa, 

79 

Mapera, 144, 145 
Martyrs, 28, 214-218, 226, 

248 

Masudi, 190, 191, 193 
Medicine, 32, 84, 125, 126, 

162, 179, 251, 257 
Mengo, 207 
Merchants, 33 
Missionaries, 10, 25-31, 80, 

88, 90-93, 98, 104-106, 

130, 220, 221, 270, 273, 

see also Catholics, 

French Missionaries 
Mission boats, 82, 196-205, 

261, 262; 
houses, 82, 88, 90, 173- 

175, 199, 220, 255, 266; 
schools, 82, 88 
Missions, African, 47, 82,90, 

91, 224-228, 255-279 
Mohammed, 12, 13, 16, 138, 

139 
Mohammedan, book, see 

Koran 
dress, 13; 

prayers, 138-140, 146,164; 
religion, 12, 13-18, 105, 

129, 135, 145, 146, 164, 

254; 
Sabbath, 4, 13 



Mohammedans, 257 

Money, see African money, 

Cowry-shells 
Moses, 16, 120 
Mpwapwa, 42, 43, 46, 47,50, 

56, 58, 70, 82, 84 
Mufta, 71, 77, 146 
Mujasi, 204-219 
Mukasa, 111-134, 158, also 
name of two young men, 
158, 163 

Music-boxes, 33, 34, 149 
Mutesa, King, 4-26, 71-200; 
asks for missionaries, 19; 
donations to the mission, 

82, 87-90, 171, 172; 
dress, 9; 

gift to Stanley, 8; 
letter urging haste, 71, 72; 
letters to, 77-79; 
members of family, favor- 
ing Christianity, 169, 
228, 236; 

mother's burial, 179-190; 
palace, 9, 73, 75, 76, 98, 

116, 179; 

presents from missiona- 
ries, 79, 85-87; 
" pretty sayings," 94, 95 ; 
promises to end slave-sell- 
ing, 102; 

receptions at palace, 8, 9, 
76-82, 86-88, 132-134; 
reported cruelty, 20; 



286 



INDEX 



services in palace, 98 j 

sickness, 106, 115-134,140, 
194; 

suffering and death, 194, 
195; 

swayed by impulse, 108- 
110; 

urges excuses, 193; 

wives, 20, 81, 103, 115, 

196 
Mwanga, King, 200-260; 

becomes cruel and tyran- 
nical, 200, 233-238; 

causes death of Bishop 
Hannington, 224-227; 

present to, 228-230; 

promise broken and Chris- 
tians slain, 242, 243; 

seeks Mackay's aid when 

in exile, 259 
Mwira, 167, 168 

Namasole, queen, 179-190 
Navy of Uganda, 10 
New England States, 9 
Nile River, 3 
Nua, 232, 239, 240 

O'Flaherty, Mr., ,140-149, 
154-167, 171, 180, 195, 
227, 232 

O'Neill, Mr., 25, 70, 72, 82 
Oxen, 52, 58-68, 82, 178 



Palace, 9, 73, 75, 76, 101, 

107, 132, 211, 228 
Palms, 73 

Parables read, 103, 104 
Parker, Bishop, 269 
Pearls, 147 
Pearson, Mr., 106, 107, 137, 

146, 152, 154 

Philipo, 158, 163-166, 210 
Plague, the, 156, 162 
Plantains, 73, 116, 166, 173, 

185, 198 

Pombe, 12, 15, 44, 73 
Prayers, Christian, 23, 116, 

153, 218, 228; 
heathen, 113, 179 
Prime minister, 9, 121, see 

also Katikiro 
Printing, printing-press, 33, 

107, 136, see also Mack- 

ay, printing 

Processions, 36, 74, 132 
Protestant, Protestants, 104, 

137, 248 
Pump, 175, 176 
Pupils, see Schools 

Queen mother, 115, 129, 254 
Queen Victoria, 1, 106, 109, 
149, 231 

Railways, 28, 273 
Rain, rainy season, 49, 59, 
61, 64 



287 



INDEX 



Reading, readers, 71, 97, 107, 

135, 136, 157, 159, 165, 

221, 231, 237-243, 256 
Receptions, 8, 9, 76-82, 86- 

88 
Religion, see Christian, 

Heathen, Mohammedan 
Rivers, 3, 38, 51, 62, 64, 65, 

84; 

crossing of, 64, 65, 87 
Roads, road-building, 8, 28, 

34, 50-58, 70, 73, 74 
Roberto, 238, 239 
Robertson, Mr. James, 23, 

36; 

Mr. William, 25 
Roman Catholic, see Catho- 

lio 

Rubaga, 73, 162, 167 
Rusaka, 182 

Sabbath, the Christian, 4, 88, 

98, 101, 106, 204; 
the Mohammedan, 4, 13 

Sabbath-breaking, 109 

Samweli, 244-246 

Sarah, 164-166 

Schoolhouse, 90, 98 

Schools, scholars, 71, 82, 96, 
97, 107, 157, 158, 163, 
222 

Scripture, see Bible 

Sebwato, 213 

Sembera, 155, 158 



Seruwanga, 212-216 
Shields, 198, 206 
Sketch-book, 225 
Slavery, slaves, 12, 17, 18, 29, 

32, 93, 96, 97, 101, 111, 

144, 147, 155, 169-172, 

192, 274 
Smith, Dr. John, 25, 43, 46, 

70, 83; 
Lieutenant G. Shergold, 25, 

43, 45, 46, 70, 76, 79, 

81-83, 87, 148 

Soldiers, see African soldiers 
Spears, 198, 206, 226, 237, 

238 

Spirit-huts, 11, 112-114, 133 
Spirit, ancestral, 118, 126; 
evil, 11, 12, 112, 113, 157, 

169, 274 
Stanley, Henry M., 1-29, 71, 

77, 78, 85, 130, 263-271, 

279 
Steam - engines, steam 

launches, 32, 37, 72, 94, 

167, 261 

Steamships, 100, 273 
Sunday, see Sabbath, the 

Christian 

Teachers, 77, 163, 220, 221, 

279 

Telephone, 100 
Telegraph, 100 
Ten Commandments, 5, 15 



288 



INDEX 



Tents, 33, 40, 43 
Times, the London, 273 
Tom-toms, see African tom- 
toms 

Tools, 32, 37, 53, 93 
Traders, 101, 102, 111, 120, 

223, see also Arabs 
Translating Bible, 170, 221 
Tribes, African, 7, 9 
Tsetse flies, 59, 67, 68 
Tucker, Bishop, 275 
Turkish rug 1 , 79 
Turning-lathe, 93 
Tytherleigh, Mr., 59, 84 

Uganda, 4-24, 30, 98, 99 
Ugogo, 43-46 
Umbrellas, 33, 62 
United States, 60 
Usambiro, 258, 259 
Usoga, 202-205, 209, 223 
Uyui, 136, 137 

Victoria Lake, 1, 5, 6, 24, 31, 
47, 70, 73, 82, 84, 106, 
203, 232, 273 

Victoria, Queen, see Queen 
Victoria 

Villages, 43, 57 

Waganda people, 8, 74, 97 



Wagon, 262, 263, 264 
Walker, Mr., 256, 257 
Wealth in Uganda, 6, 147, 

192 

Wheels, 53, 94 
White men, 7, 8, 14-19, 36; 

strange customs of, 92 
Wilson, Rev. Mr., 25, 70, 76, 

81, 82, 85, 87 
Wire, 12, 32, 34 
Witchcraft, 109, 123 
Witches, 112, 181 
Wives, see African wives 
Wizards, 111-134, 156-161, 

274 
Women, 86, 96, 110, 132, 147, 

157, 165-168, 172, 173, 

182, 185, 188, 192 
Work, 165-168, 171-177, 228, 

233, 276; 
done by Mackay, 93, 94, 

107, 131, 170-190 
Wright, Mr. Henry, 29; 
also name of Christian lad, 

158 

Yakobo, 158 

Zanzibar, 31, 33, 5, 47-52, 

141, 146, 203, 254; 
Sultan of, 77 



289 



Mission Study Courses 



"Anywhere, provided it be FORWARD." David Livingstone. 



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MISSIONARY EDUCATION MOVEMENT 

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EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE: G. F. Sutherland, Chairman; A. 
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The Forward Mission _ Study Courses are an outgrowth of 
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Endeavor, and Mr. S. Earl Taylor, Chairman of the General 
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Mission Study Courses. These courses have been officially 
adopted by the Missionary Education Movement, and are now 
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The aim is to publish a series of text-books covering the 
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The following text-books having a sale of over 1,500,000 have 
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1. THE PRICE OF AFRICA. Biographical. By S. Earl Taylor. 

2. INTO ALL THE WORLD. A general survey of missions. By 
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3. PRINCELY MEN IN THE HEAVENLY KINGDOM. Biographical. 
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4. SUNRISE IN THE SUNRISE KINGDOM. Revised Edition. A 
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6. DAYBREAK IN THE DARK CONTINENT. Revised Edition. A 
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7. THE CHRISTIAN CONQUEST OF INDIA. A study of India. 
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8. ALIENS OR AMERICANS? A study of Immigration. By 
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9. THE UPLIFT OF CHINA. Revised Edition. A study of 
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10. THE CHALLENGE OF THE CITY. A study of the City. By 
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11. THE WHY AND How OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. A study of 
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12. THE MOSLEM WORLD. A study of the Mohammedan 
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13. THE FRONTIER. A study of the New West. By Ward 
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14. SOUTH AMERICA: Its Missionary Problems. A study of 
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15. THE UPWARD PATH : The Evolution of a Race. A study 
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;. Sophia Lvan